The Philippine Archipelago first became known to Europeans on March 16, 1521, through the voyage of exploration of Ferdinand Magellan. In June, 1572, the city of Manila was formally established, and by 1690 the majority of the islands were in fairly peaceful possession of the Spaniards. A peculiarity of Spanish colonizing methods was the very small number of their citizens who established a residence in the colonies; during the first half of the 19th century there were not more than 5000 Spaniards in the archipelago. Dissatisfaction with the conditions brought about by Spanish rule culminated in cries for independence and in 1872 there was a minor insurrection which was quickly put down. The movement for independence from Spanish rule continued, and finally led to the execution of Rizal, a leader of the movement, on December 30, 1896. With this execution of a popular leader revolt again broke out, and this time it spread through several provinces. On September 9, 1898 the Filipinos proclaimed a provisional government with Aguinaldo as president.

As a result of the War with Spain these islands came under the control of the United States. Incidents soon occurred which led to insurrection by Aguinaldo and his followers against the United States. The capture of Aguinaldo by General Frederick Funston in March, 1901 virtually ended the revolt the next year.

Following the discontinuance of the Spanish colonial government in 1898, a military government was established by the United States, which continued over all of the islands until July 4, 1901, at which time Judge Taft became the first and only civil governor of the Philippines. Since the administration of Judge Taft the title of this office became Governor General. The government was made directly dependent on the Secretary of War, who organized the Bureau of Insular Affairs as his immediate agent The Jones Bill, which was passed by the Congress of the United States on August 29, 1914 established administrative machinery which is still the foundation for the Philippine government.

The movement for independence has continued under American rule; and with an increasing number of supporters of this stand in the United States the Tydings-McDuffeie Act was passed on March 24, 1934. This Act provides that in 1946 the United States shall withdraw entirely from the islands and the commonwealth shall become the Republic of the Philippines. Since the passage of this law the Commonwealth elects its own president. The senior representative of the United States is known as the High Commissioner.

The archipelago consists of approximately 7083 islands extending north and south about 1152 miles and east and west about 688 miles. Only eleven of the islands have an area of over 1000 square miles. Luzon, the largest island, has an area of 40,814 square miles which is somewhat less than the State of Pennsylvania.

The computed population in 1928 was about 12,000,000, which represents an increase of approximately 80% since 1903. In this population there are 43 ethnographic groups with the same number of languages and dialects.

The Philippines would have little differences in climate if the rainfall were homogeneous. There are three types of climate. The first is characterized by two pronounced seasons, dry in winter and spring and wet in summer and fall. In Luzon this type occurs in its western part. The second type has no dry season with a pronounced maximum of rainfall in winter; this type occurs in southeastern Luzon. The third type has no very pronounced rainy period and a short dry period of only one to three months. Manila has the first type climate. In the Manila area the average temperature for the year is about 80º, and the annual rainfall about 95 inches. The climate is apparently satisfactory to most persons, the death rate per thousand whites in Manila in 1920 being 13 compared with Washington, D. C., 14 and for New York City, 13.

Preparations Before Embarkation

Clothing Segregation. Clothing should be segregated, putting heavy or medium weight in one trunk and light weight in another. This is considered necessary, inasmuch as but one steamer trunk is allowed in a stateroom for each passenger, other trunks being held in the baggage room.

Firearms. Firearms should be thoroughly cleaned and greased prior to packing for shipment. Be sure and note the serial numbers appearing on these arms, as it will be necessary to declare and register (see below) the same before landing in the Philippines, although no duty is charged.

Automobiles. Gasoline and water must he drained and batteries should be disconnected and terminals taped. It is recommended that tires be removed from the car before loading on transport. Should they be left on the car3 they should be fully inflated and carefully examined for leaks, otherwise they may be flat and ruined upon arrival in Manila. Springs should be oiled, parts cosmolined, and every precaution taken against rust and corrosive action of salt water. Accessories, such as tools and spotlights, should be removed and packed separately.

Household Furnishings. Heavy furniture should not be taken to the Philippines as the glue fails in damp weather and veneering comes off. Heavy upholstered furniture suffers from mildew. Books deteriorate through insects and mildew unless varnished - only professional books should be taken. Photographs and pictures deteriorate in a similar manner. Wicker furniture of the best quality can be purchased in the Philippines at a very reasonable price. China, all silver, glassware, etc., should be taken. Woolen rugs are not recommended, as they are liable to mildew; native mats are cheap and serviceable. Heavy or expensive draperies or hangings should be left in the States, as light and less expensive material more suitable for the climate may be obtained after arrival. Window shades are not used in the Philippines. Bed linen and pillows should he taken, together with a minimum at heavy coverings. Quartermaster beds are available for issue so far as the supply allows.




Upon Arrival In Manila

Boarding Party. A boarding party meets the transport immediately following clearance by the quarantine officials. Formal orders, messages, and first class mail are distributed by a representative from the department adjutant general's office. Officers from department headquarters and one officer each from Port McKinley, Port Mills, and Camp Stotsenburg, are present to offer such assistance as may be needed.

Uniform. Standing orders, Philippine Department, require all officers to land at Manila in uniform. The service cap is not worn in the Philippines at any time. Hongkong khaki is the prescribed uniform material for officers and warrant officers. If purchased in the Philippines uniformity in color is assured.

Customs Inspection: Baggage. The customs officials are on the wharf near the main entrance under a large sign "CUSTOMS." Baggage must he inspected and passed before it can he released. It is recommnded that hand baggage be cleared first, and then return a few hours later to clear trunks, thus reducing congestion on the pier. Baggage when unloaded is placed in alphabetical order as indicated by large signs.

Firearms. All passengers for the Philippines having privately owned firearms in their possession must register them by number, make and caliber, with the Insular customs officials on the pier.

Transportation: Baggage. On the wharf near the customs will be found a noncommisioned officer of the Quartermaster Corps detailed to handle baggage. His position is indicated by a sign "BAGGAGE." After your baggage has been inspected and passed by the customs officials, it should be turned over to this noncommissioned officer for delivery. Baggage checks should be obtained from him and care should be exercised that each piece of baggage is properly tagged and that name and destination are properly and plainly written on each tag.

Passengers for Points in Manila. Motor transportation is available under the charge of the motor transport officer to convey passengers and their baggage to hotels or other places in the City of Manila. Passengers have only to signify to the motor transport officer in charge their destination and the proper bus will be indicated.

Passengers for Points Onside of Manila. Meeting Officers. Large signs indicating the various posts in the Philippine Department are placed at conspicuous points on the pier; An officer from each post will be present on the dock in the immediate vicinity of his sign to assist incoming officers who should locate him immediately after leaving the transport.

Living Conditions

Food. Food should be eaten only where it is known to be of good quality and properly prepared. All are advised not to eat uncooked vegetables, as due to the manner of raising at some places they may carry such diseases as cholera, dysentery, and typhoid. Exceptions may he made of cucumbers and tomatoes, provided they are properly scalded and peeled. Many of the native fruits are good and should be eaten; however, green or over-ripe fruits should be avoided. It is advisable to scald the native fruits before peeling and if the end of the banana peeling is broken, that end of the fruit should be discarded.

Water. Only artesian, distilled, or boiled water should be used for drinking or cleansing the teeth. Drinking water, either artesian or distilled, is furnished to the Army and Navy Club and to officers' quarters in Manila upon request made to the utilities officer, Manila. There is artesian water at Fort Wm. McKinley, Rizal, and Sternberg General Hospital, Manila, also at the Manila Hotel and probably other places. No drinking water should be used unless its quality is known to be satisfactory. There are such bottled waters as Isuan, Tansan, Red Rock, Royal, etc., which are good.

Mosquito Bars. All persons sleeping, either during the day or at night, should have the mosquito bar down and tucked under the mattress. The anopheles mosquito, which carries malaria. is a night flier and bites after sundown; however, the mosquito which transmits dengue bites during the day as well as at night, and especially in the afternoon. Persons living in unscreened houses will find mosquito punk useful.

Personal Hygiene. Upon exertion perspiration is excessive during most of the year. For this reason extreme care must be taken to prevent chilling.

A sweater or other heavy garment should be worn after exercise until one has bathed. Whenever possible, the bath and rubdown should he taken immediately after exercise. Iced drinks should be avoided until the body has cooled. Never sleep in the blast of an electric fan. During sleep the abdomen should be covered at all times - either with a special flannel belt or by insuring against the ordinary garments being open.

Children should be examined by an Army surgeon soon after arrival for possible physical ailments as well as for suggestions as to diet, etc.

Solicit advice from older army residents as to method of making purchases from native stores.

Clothing and Uniform. The usual prices for clothing in Manila averages as follows:


White uniforms..................................................................................................16.00
Khaki uniforms..................................................................................................16.00
Mess jacket and vest.........................................................................................16.00
White duck civilan suit.......................................................................................16.00
Palm beach civilian suit...............................................................................30.00 - 40.00
Pongee silk civilian suit...............................................................................45.00 - 65.00

Black trousers are authorized and generally worn with the white mess jacket. Civilian clothing may be worn under the same conditions as in the United States. Newly arrived officers are advised to secure two khaki uniforms, two of white and one mess jacket with vest, immediately upon arrival. Several alterations may be necessary to secure a correct fit of uniform and this should be insisted upon, as no extra charge is entailed thereby. Very satisfactory boots and shoes are made by native bootmakers at a price approximately one-half the price charged in the States. It is advisable, however, to furnish the bootmaker with a model or sample of your wants, as they are not proficient in making to measurement. The same applies to women's footwear. However standard makes of shoes may be purchased at the shops. at usual prices. Standard makes of officers' equipment are available at the quartermaster general sales store, the various regimental exchanges and at shops on the Escolta in Manila. In addition to being worn as authorized by Army Regulations, the white dress uniform is prescribed for wear before retreat, for social functions, and on Sundays and holidays. It may be worn for informal occasions in the evening. The mess jacket and black trousers are worn for formal evening functions. Sweaters and heavyweight clothing are needed at Camp John Hay, Baguio, inasmuch as this resort is over 5000 feet above sea level. Lightweight raincoats for all members of the family should be brought from the States for use during the rainy season. Oilskins are not recommended, due to climatic conditions.

Ladies in the Philippines usually wear very lightweight clothing; light also as regards color. All articles of ladies' apparel can be secured in Manila. Paris gowns and embroideries are much cheaper than in the United States.

Electric Current. All government public quarters in the City of Manila are equipped with 110 volt current. All current in the city of Manila other than government is 220 volt. Various hardware and electric companies are prepared to change electrical appliances to carry either 110 or 220 volts.

Mail. The Director of Posts, Manila, P.I., should be furnished with your address upon arrival, in order that mail may not be delayed. Until correspondents are advised as to your new address, mail may be addressed you at Manila, using care that your grade and branch of service appears.

Hospitals. Excellent hospital facilities are provided in Manila at the Sternberg General Hospital, as well as at other posts in the Islands.

Banking and Currency. It is advisable to institute a banking account in Manila, inasmuch as checks drawn on U.S. Banks are very difficult to cash. The par value of the Philippine currency bears a ratio to that of American money of two to one; i.e., one Filipino peso equals 50 cents in American currency. The peso contains 100 centavos, each worth one half of the U.S. cent.

Clubs. In addition to strictly military clubs maintained at the various posts, the following are principal clubs of Manila and environs of interest to the Service.

Army and Navy Club, facing the Luneta, Manila. Initiation fee ranges from 50 to 10 pesos, and monthly dues from 8 to 1.50 pesos, depending on station to which assigned. During most of the season, hops are given weekly, though dancing may be enjoyed every night during the dinner hour. This is the social center of the Army and Navy. All officers are given two weeks guest cards upon arrival.

Manila Polo Club, situated on the Bay about 3 miles south of the center of Manila and accessible to Fort Wm. McKinley and Camp Nichols. A salt water pool, polo, tennis and golf are the activities supported by the dub. Army members pay no initiation fee but have monthly dues of 10 pesos.

Caloocan Golf Club, about 5 miles north a Manila. An excellent eighteen-hole course is maintained. Army members pay no initiation fee, but have monthly dues of 10 pesos. This is probably the "sportiest" course in the Islands.

Manila Tennis Club, adjacent to the Luneta. Monthly dues 6 pesos, with no initiation fee to army officers. Eight excellent courts are available.

Hotels. About seventy-two hours before arrival of a transport, a radiogram is sent to the commanding officer of troops, containing an itemized list, by hotels, of all available rooms in Manila. This list is then posted and passengers are given the opportunity of making selections. Reservations desired are then radioed to headquarters, which advises the hotels concerned.

Entertainment. A golf course is available between the Army and Navy Club and the Manila Hotel. Native caddies are obtainable at a nominal fee. There are several first class rnoving picture houses in Manila.

Filipino Goods. Goods of Filipino manufacture are admitted free of duty in the States. In mailing same to the U. S., it is recommended that a certificate of origin be secured at the post office, in order to obviate delay in passing customs in the States.

Postage. Postage rates to the United States are 6 centavos for each ounce of first class mail. Mail from the States is 3 cents. First-class rates to most foreign countries are 16 centavos per ounce.

Cable and Radio Messages. Commercial cable and radio companies make the same charge for words in the address and signature of message as for words in the message itself. Parties expecting to use this service will, therefore, find it to the advantage of their correspondents to register with the Manila Office of these companies code addresses for themselves and notify their correspondents in the United States accordingly. The day rates per word for cable and radiograms are about: to San Francisco, 1.20 pesos; to Chicago, 1.42 pesos; to New York, 1.49 pesos. Rates for deferred messages and week-end letters are much lower.

The Signal Corps telegraph stations in the Philippines accept unofficial messages from military personnel for transmission by radio to San Francisco at a nominal charge of 20 centavos each to cover direct costs. Such messages are mailed at San Francisco to the addresses. If faster service by air-mail or telegraph from San Francisco is desired, it may be arranged if the additional cost of that service is paid by the sender. This radio service is not as fast or reliable as commercial service, but although delays of a day or two some-times occur, the service is generally sufficient for all personal messages except those of the most urgent character. The following restrictions are necessary on such messages: not more than one message can he accepted the same day from any person; messages must be limited to 25 words exclusive of address; messages of a financial or business nature, particularly those naming amounts of money, cannot be accepted.

To facilitate handling the large volume of radio messages to the U. S. following closely upon arrival of each transport arrangements have been made whereby form messages can be transmitted by form number only, with the address and signature desired. These messages may be filed with the transport quartermaster subject to the restrictions and conditions outlined in the preceding paragraph for delivery to the radio station at Port Santiago upon arrival. Messages in this form will also be accepted directly from transport passengers at the telegraph office at Fort Santiago or Signal Corps telegraph stations at other posts after arrival. Other forms of messages reporting arrival cannot be accepted within six days of arrival of a transport.

Libraries. An up-to-date library is maintained at Fort Santiago, Manila, having over 25,000 volumes, together with American magazines and newspapers. Libraries are also maintained at other posts.

Transportation Rates in Manila. Vehicle rates are very low, the following being standard:

5-passenger motor cars, 1.50 to 2.00 pesos an hour.
7-passenger motor can, 2.50 to 5.00 pesos an hour
Calesa (1-horse carriage), 15 mm., 20c; 30 min., 30c; 1 hour, 60c.

Special motor rates are given to members of the Army and Navy Club, or those holding guest cards, provided the car is secured through the club.

Servants. The prevailing wages in Manila are:

Filipino cook 30 to 40 pesos a month.
Filipino houseboy 10 to 20 pesos a month.
Filipino combination cook-houseboy 30 to 50 pesos a month.
Filipina lavandera (washwoman) 15 to 20 pesos a month.
Filipina amah (nurse) 15 to 20 pesos a month.
Filipina combination, lavandera-amah, 20 to 30 pesos a month.

Before employing servants, it is recommended that they be taken to the provost marshal to ascertain whether or not they have a criminal record. In event recommendations are submitted by applicants, if possible, check up with the previous employer, so as to obviate chance of forged letters of recommendation. Cooks and amahs should undergo a physical examination of army surgeons before acceptance.

Automobile License. Automobile licenses must be secured from the Bureau of Public Works within seven days of arrival of automobile, at 2 pesos per year. No one is allowed to operate a motor vehicle without a driver's license. These cost 2 pesos each in addition to the auto license.

Rental of Houses and Apartments. Unfurnished houses and apartments may be rented for 75 pesos to 150 pesos per month. Most of these are piped for gas stoves which may be rented for 2.50 pesos per month. Officers who are to be stationed in Manila and vicinity and who are not furnished with government quarters, may obtain a list of the most desirable quarters available for rent, with address, rental, number of rooms and other pertinent data, by calling at the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, G-1, Headquarters Philippine Department, Fort Santiago, where an up-to-date list is maintained. Real estate agencies in Manila maintain rental service.

Quarters. There are only forty-eight sets of government quarters for officers in Manila, divided as follows: Military Plaza (C. G. and staff)-l1 sets; Gral Luna (Dept. staff, Q. M., M.D. and Inf.)-20 sets; Cuartel de España (Inf.) - 4 sets; Fort Santiago (Q. M., M.D., and Inf.)-13 sets. As there are always more officers assigned to duty in Manila than there are available quarters, it is necessary for many to rent quarters. All officers at Corregidor and Camp Stotsenburg, and all but a few at Fort Wm. McKinley, occupy government quarters. Most officers assigned to Manila and Camp Nichols are on a rental allowance status.

Foodstuffs. Groceries may be obtained directly from the quartermaster general sales store or commissary. This includes meats, staples and oranges, grapefruit and lemons. A personal call is necessary in order to arrange credit. Vegetables are imported from the States, though many are now grown locally, particularly in the highlands near Baguio, which compare favorably with the similar varieties of the States.

Ice. In Manila ice is usually purchased from the Insular Government Supply Division of Cold Storage at special government prices of 1¼ centavos per kilo (2.21 pounds). Personal call there is necessary to the initial transaction.

Glassware. Glassware and mirrors, etc., are obtainable at slightly higher prices than those prevailing in the United States.

Schools. There is a central public school for children in Manila for which no tuition is charged. Americans and the higher class of mestizos attend. The American school is exclusively for Americans and is taught by American teachers. A tuition is charged. Both of these schools teach through the high school grades. There are several preparatory schools for boys, and many girls attend the local convents. Schools are maintained at several of the posts.

Automobiles. Automobiles will be found exceedingly useful in the Philippines. Closed cars will be found more satisfactory than open ones The bringing of a new car is not recommended, inasmuch as the heat and rain rapidly deteriorate the upholstery and body. Gasoline is expensive unless purchased through the quartermaster. Repairs and spare parts cost about the same as in the United States, but quality of work is, on the average, not as high. Tires are usually cheaper than in the United States.

Leaves, Detached Service and Travel. Officers stationed in the Philippines enjoy exceptional opportunities for sightseeing. The policy encourages officers to visit all parts of the Philippines. All officers, warrant officers and nurses are entitled to one month of detached service for each year of service in the Philippines. This enables one to travel within the archipelago without being on leave status. Many use this time for visit to Camp John Hay (Baguio), which is situated in northern Luzon in the mountains, at an altitude of 5000 feet. This resort is open throughout the year. Public quarters are available and a central mess maintained at an average cost of 3.50 pesos per day for adults. The southern islands also offer detached service attractions, such as Zamboanga, Jolo, and the Sulu Islands with their pearl fisheries and interesting native life. In normal times trips may be taken to China, Japan, Borneo, etc., on a regular leave status. Full information as to routes, cost, etc., may be obtained at the office of 0-2, Department Headquarters, Fort Santiago, Manila.





Military Posts

Fort Santiago, Post of Manila, Sternberg General Hospital. The foregoing remarks regarding the Philippines are applicable to these posts. Fort Santiago is inside the walled city (Intramuros). It is the seat of the Philippine Department headquarters, while the Post of Manila has one regiment of American Infantry, the 31st, quartered in what is known as the Cuartel España and Estado Mayor. Sternberg General Hospital is situated in the city of Manila.

Camp Nichols. Six miles south of Manila and connected therewith by an excellent motor road. An aviation field. One composite group stationed there. All general remarks regarding the Philippines applicable here. There are but seven sets of quarters on this post and most of the officers and noncommissioned officers of the first three grades live in Manila and nearby suburbs, where accommodations are readily found at the prevailing rates. An officer from Camp Nichols will be on the wharf to meet all officers assigned to this post. Any information desired may be obtained from him.

Fort Wm. McKinley. Headquarters of the Philippine Division, 9 miles south of Manila, Troops here are Infantry and the Antiaircraft Coast Artillery. Passengers for Fort Wm. McKinley will be met on the wharf by an officer from that station with transportation for passengers and baggage. All but a few officers assigned are furnished government quarters. No public schools are maintained, children attending in Manila. Lower grades are taught in local schools and busses furnished for transportation to Manila. A local commissary is maintained. Climate same as in Manila.

Fort Mills and Kindley Field. Situated on Corregidor Island (area 5 square miles) at the entrance to Manila Bay. Thirty miles from the city of Manila and connected therewith by a free army ferry system operating on a regular schedule and taking about two and one half hours for the trip. An officer from Fort Mills will be on the wharf to meet all passengers destined for the Harbor Defenses of Manila and Subic Bay. A boat will be in readiness at Pier A (adjacent to Pier 1), to convey passengers and their baggage to destination. Hour of departure will be communicated by above officer. Coast Artillery and Air Corps troops are stationed there. All officers occupy government quarters. Free telephone in all quarters for island communication only. Communication with the mainland is by radio and cable. A commissary is operated which carries the same foodstuffs as the Manila commissary. Ice is issued to all officers at a nominal rate. Water must be boiled for drinking purposes. A public school is maintained, including two years of high school. Climate considerably cooler than in Manila. Motion pictures are shown nightly. A library is maintained.

Camp Stotsenburg and Clark Field. A Field Artillery and Cavalry post with one squadron of Air Corps at Clark Field (adjoining Camp Stotsenburg). About 57 miles north of Manila, in the foothills of the mountains and connected with Manila by train and an excellent motor road. Trains leave the Tondo Station, Manila, daily at 6:00, 8:00 and 11:30 A.M. and 12:07 and 3:48 P.M. Railroad fare, 4.45 pesos. Motor transportation to Tondo Station may be arranged for through the motor transport officer. Sometimes motor busses are available to convey officers, their families, and their baggage to Camp Stotsenburg. Inquire of the Camp Stotsenburg representative at Pier No. I, or of the motor transport officer. Application for transportation request to cover commercial transportation should be made to the department quartermaster. All officers occupy government quarters. Free phone in all quarters for post use only. Communication with Manila by radio and telegraph only. A commissary is operated. Fruits and fresh vegetables are obtainable at the post exchange or from local hucksters. Ice is issued to all officers' quarters. Artesian water is furnished free by the post quartermaster. Motion pictures are shown nightly. A standard post library is available. Climate is cooler than Manila. A post laundry is maintained by the quartermaster. Interesting trips may be made in the mountains over trails cut through tropical forests. Coal and wood are used as fuel for cooking. The post supports a central officers' club, a swimming pool and golf course; polo and tennis are also played. Automobiles are useful but not a necessity. Automobiles may be registered through the provost marshal, and all personally owned firearms must be registered with him. The bringing of American servants is discouraged and this practice has been found very unsatisfactory due to their lack of friends and the availability of experienced native servants.

Camp John Hay, Baguio. In the north central part of Luzon, 170 miles from Manila, at an altitude of about 5000 feet. Railroad fare, 11.10 pesos. Daily trains from Manila at 8:00 A.M. Change at Damortis to army motor transportation. See department standing orders for particulars regarding this health resort. An excellent motor road from Manila over some of the most picturesque scenery in the world (Benguet Highway). Application for transportation requests to cover commercial transportation should be made to department quartermaster.

Pettit Barracks, Mindanao. About 670 miles from Manila. Passengers for Pettit Barracks will remain in Manila pending sailing of commercial vessel for Zamboanga. Application for transportation requests to cover commercial transportation should be made to department quartermaster.