15. 0n 12 February 1945, at noon, twelve Japanese came to the home of Mr. Florencio Homol, a calesa driver, at 150 V. Cruz, Manila.  The Japanese soldiers closed the doors and windows and told the people to stop eating their meal and raise their hands.  They then took their watches and all their belongings and carried them away.  The people, twenty-two in all, taken upstairs into the bedroom.  The Japanese then gathered bed sheets and poured gasoline on them and ignited it.  The Japanese watched for every person passing by the house and began shooting at them.  While the house was burning, the people began breaking down the doors to escape into the streets.  The soldiers began shooting at them and striking them with bayonets.  Only four out of the twenty-two survived.  Mr. Homol was bayoneted.  He was brought by Americans to a first aid station and then to San Lazaro Hospital.  The names of some of the persons killed were:  Mr. and Mrs. Perez Rubio, the owner of the business firm in Escolta, Mr. and Mrs. Fox, British and all of their thirteen servants.  (See Exhibit “B-12”.)  

     16. On 7 February 1945, about midnight, the Japanese began burn­ing homes of people near the home of Mr. Alberto Manansala, 219 Guada­leyse, Makati, Rizal.  The people gathered all women and small children together.  They were taken to a building, while Mr. Manansala and his brother were left in the house.  The soldiers came back and for no reason thrust a bayonet in his side and arm.  He pretended that he was dead and they left. Their house was burning at that time, causing his face and neck to be burned.  They then crawled to a ditch twenty-five meters away from the house where a neighbor found them on the following morning and brought them to the nearest first aid station.  The youngest brother who was thir­teen is now missing.  Other people (number not determined) who were killed are: A Chinese couple; Yo, Chan; and Alipio Augustin, Jr.; and, Mr. and Mrs. Feliciano Lozaro.  (Exhibit “B-13”.) 

     17. On 6, February 1945, Mrs. Helen Drinidad, 186 Ruby street St. Andrew Extension, Manila, had her two daughters behind her house after the American soldiers were in the neighborhood.  While crossing a street they heard a machine gun being fired by two or three Japanese from a house.  The thirteen year old daughter was hit by a bullet.  Another child who was with them was Renesus Perez.  The bullet hit her and Mrs. Drinidad’s child.  The next morning an American soldier took them to the San Lazaro Hospital.  (See Exhibit "B-14".)

     18. On Saturday, 10 February 1945, at 3:00 PM, Mr. Jose Cabanero, 1404 Remy, Singalong Subdivision, Manila, Acting superintendent of Postal Savings Bank, and his brother Felicisimo Cabanero, his cousin ,Jose Disini, were accosted by a Japanese officer and three soldiers with fixed bayonets in the vicinity of his house.  They were requested to, came along to be used for forced labor, and taken to an area not far from his house.  There they found some two hundred persons, all residents of the vicin1ty.  They were not suspicious of the Japanese actions for they were given cigarettes and promises of rice rations after a few hours of labor.  Later, all were lined up and hands tied.  Simultaneously ten of them were pulled out of the row and herded to a place known as a paper factory where the people were being beheaded.  Later, five of the group from the other end of the row were marched out and taken before a group of Japanese soldiers and shot one by one by rifle fire.  Among those were Felicisimo Cabanero, Jose Disini, Miguel Bonifacio H. Polard, and others.  All were shot.  There were no women in the group. Mr. Jose Cabanero had no chance for escape as he would have been a target, but he managed to loosen his bonds and took a chance of running for his life.  While running to an intersection of streets, a Jap­anese officer overtook him and hit him with a sabre which brought him down.  Then he kicked him and gave him another blow on the face with the sabre.  Before he left Mr. Cabanero, who was still moving, the Japanese officer gave him another blow on the back of the neck and then gave him two other final blows.  Believing him dead, the Japanese left. Mr. Cabanero was bleeding and lost his senses, but before everything became obscure he treated his wounds to prevent the flow of blood.  After an hour, his consciousness returned and he made a final effort to crawl to a hut where he was assisted and his wounds treated.  For a long time in that condi­tion he was unable to get medical treatment because no men were allowed on the streets.  The doctors would not risk their lives attending to patients.  After two days the Americans rescued him and took him to Santa Ana aid station and then to San Lazaro Hospital.  (See Exhibits “B-15” and C-5”.) 

     19. On 10 February 1945, about 10:00 AM, Japanese told Mr. Remedios Entao, 1382 San Andres, Manila, that his place might soon be burned because some of the surrounding houses had already been burned.  The in­ habitants of the house carried their belongings about thirty meters away from the house.  That morning the Japanese gathered the men together for forced labor and carried them away to a place unknown.  While Mr. Eantao was in his house, his sister was in an open court where they had laid their things.  The Japanese soldiers saw her and others there and threw hand grenades at them.  Another sister, Francisca, died after being hit in the back.  The sister, Lourdes, was hit in the lower lip and jaw by the grenade explosion.  She is eighteen.  The lower part of her lip and her jaw were blown away (See Exhibit “C-6”).  The girls hid an air raid shelter which was filled with dead bodies.  At three the next afternoon the United States troops rescued them.  Another girl named Armando Estacio was also killed.  (See Exhibits “B-16” and “C-6”.)

     20. On February 1945, at 6:00 PM, Mr. Ricardo J. Macale, 100 San Marcelina, Manila, his uncle and his sister tried to go to a place where their house was burning, to assist in getting some food which they had left there.  When they were about two hundred yards from the place, they met about forty Japanese soldiers.  Mr. Macale tried to speak to them to tell them that he wanted to get some food left in the burning house.  They pointed a pistol at him, and one of them gave Mr. Macale a blow on the head, making him somewhat dizzy.  After telling his uncle and sister that they had better go back, all tried to run.  Mr. Macale's sister was left behind.  She tried to hide behind the vines.  He was shot in the foot as he ran.  He fell flat on the ground, pretending to be dead.  He tried to get up, but was unable to walk.  He was then carried away to another place and was brought to San Lazaro Hospital on 12 February by Americans. There were three men shot, names not known. (See Exhibit "B-17".)

     21. On Saturday, 9 February 1945, in the afternoon, the Japanese approached various houses in the neighborhood of 684 Extremudra, Manila, the home of Mr. Godofredo G. Rivera, an employee of the Asiatic Petroleum Company, asking for men for labor.  The Japanese checked every house as a possible hiding place.  About two hundred fifty people were assembled.  The Japanese tied the men’s hands behind their backs.  They were then taken to an open field a short distance from the house where they were to be executed.  Mr. Rivera believes the Japanese were afraid American planes would see them, so they were brought, to a hiding place.  About 5:00 PM, the Japanese started taking groups of ten to another place where they were to be cut with a sabre and annihilated.  Where Mr. Rivera was, the men were shot one by, one while knee1ing down. His brother and brother-in-law were such victims.  Mr. Rivera pretended that he was dead, and when it was dark he crawled and went back to the house for treatment.  In the afternoon their houses were burned. They could not find any place to stay.  The next morning the Americans came and took them to the San Lazaro Hospital.  Dur­ing this action there were five Japanese officers with machine guns, and others had pistols and rifles.  Mr. Rivera was shot intentionally. (See Exhibits “B-19” and "C-17”.)

     22. a. In March, 1943, upon being released from Santo Tomas as an internee, Mr. H. Ford Wilkins, a formerly employed by the Manila Daily Bulletin, University Apartments, Manila, lived in a refugee community with the Jesuit Fathers at the Ateneo de Manila.  He had a pass which permitted him to go about the city in a limited way.  On the eighth of March while going to a doctor’s office near the Escolta for treatment, he was arrested by Japan­ese Military Police and placed in a truck, and after a two hour wait was taken to Fort Santiago.  There were about eighty others similarly arrested in a general pick up for purposes of investigation.  These included young and old women, and children, and persons in all physical condition, some hardly able to walk.  After many delays he was taken for individual ques­tioning by the Japanese. He was asked questions concerning personal his­tory, business connections, etc., and finally asked how much money he had.  Upon saying he had no money, they said, “Let us see your wallet.”  He showed them his wallet in which was a total sum of fourteen pesos in notes which the Japanese investigator counted out and handed back to Mr. Wilkins.  The investigator was angry and asked why he had lied to him.  Mr. Wilkins told him that it was not his money.  He was then asked where he got the money.  Mr. Wilkins told him that he had borrowed it from a friend.  The Japanese insisted upon the name of the friend which Mr. Wilkins refused to give.  The investigator picked up a cane which Mr. Wilkins carried, being lame, and hit him over the head with it, hard enough to raise a lump.  The Japanese officer had a probable rank of first lieutenant.  Mr. Wilkins still refused to give the name and the investigator then tried other tactics such as pleading and promising no mistreatment would come to his friend.  He then beat him over the head several times, probably seven or eight, with words of pleading and threatening.  Finally, the investigator gave up and called in a man named Ohashi from the staff of the Commandant of Santo Tomas Internment Camp. To Ohashi, Mr. Wilkins said he received the money from Fathers connected with the Jesuit Order.  He was them allowed to join other interned prisoners when they were taken back to Santo Tomas after a fifty hour period of im­prisonment.  Mr. Wilkins was kept in the internment camp until liberation under special restrictions which allowed him no contact with any persons outside the camp, of any nature, in writing or by word of mouth. He testi­fied that he knows of several other persons who were arrested with him and were similarly, beaten and mistreated, some being given jail sentences up to ninety days on various charges, the nature of which were not given.  One of the men on whom severe atrocities were inflicted was Mr. Roy C. Bennett, former editor of the Manila Daily Bulletin, at Fort Santiago.  Mr. Bennett nearly starved to death for no other offense than writing editorials and articles, prior to hostilities, which were displeasing to the Japanese Embassy and other agencies of the Imperial government.

        b. Mr. Wilkins has seen at various times instances of face slapping among Americans and Filipinos and other Allied Nationals who were interned.  There were beatings with leather. straps, sticks and other imp1ements known to all internees as common occurrences.  Mr. Wilkins has seen Filipinos tied to trees, and without food or water made to stand for many hours in the hot sun.  Mr. Wilkins testified that it was a common experience to all internees to be told by the Japanese, when first picked up for inter­nment, as in his case on 6 January 1942, to take only enough, clothes and personal belongings and a little food for two or three days.  He left behind all household possessions in an apartment on Dewey Boulevard.  The Japanese asked him to place a value on this material.  He gave a rough estimate in writing of 2,000 pesos.  Mr. Wilkins has never seen any of these personal belonging since, in spite of repeated efforts to visit the place and sal­vage whatever he could find. Hundreds of other Americans were treated likewise, some of whom were allowed to repossess all, or a part of their personal property.  There were others like him, however, who saved only what they could carry with them to Santo Tomas.  Mr. Wilkins cited the case of Dr. L. Z. Fletcher, now at Santo Tomas but not available for interview, where the Japanese military personnel started collecting and moving out of Dr. Fletch­er's house, all of his furniture, valuable Oriental rugs, and other expen­sive articles of household equipment collected over a long period of years, within an hour or two after the family had been taken from the house located on Taft Avenue.  The Japanese had a general practice of denying sufficient food and proper medical care, etc., to internees at Santo Tomas Internment Camp, increasing the practice since 1 February 1944, when the Japanese army took over the camp.  Food was allowed into the camp in diminishing quanti­ties until their release when they had virtua1ly nothing to eat except the official Japanese ration amounting to 8 ½ ounces of cereal daily for adults, and half that ration for children under ten years of age.  The experience was, common to all internees.  In his case this treatment resulted in Mr. Wilkins’ loss of weight from a normal weight of 130 pounds to 99 ½ pounds.  Other larger persons lost as much as one hundred pounds of flesh or more due to that treatment.  He knows that charitable agencies in Manila, some con­nected with the Catholic Church and others with the YMCA, attempted to send relief supplies through official Japanese channels and were denied that opportunity. To Mr. Wilkins’ knowledge there were many complaints made to the Japanese authorities, both in writing and orally through various inter­nee agencies.  The internee executive committee protested many times on the inadequacy of the rations furnished the internees, with absolutely no re­sults whatsoever.  The camp doctors protested in writing and orally to the Japanese Military Prison Association, receiving no acknowledgement and no results.  The Parents' Association protested in writing to the Commanding General of the Japanese Army in the Philippines on behalf, of all under­nourished children in the camp.  No answer was received.

        c. In the early days of the internment camp at Santo Tomas, there were several reported instances of Japanese soldiers entering women’s toilets in the camp building.  The practice was stopped upon urgent appeal to Japanese authorities by camp administration officers.

        d. On the 12th of February 1942, three internees escaped over the wall of Santo Tomas Internment Camp and were later caught by the Japanese military police and returned to Santo Tomas where they were severely beaten and finally killed in the North Cemetery in Manila.  These men were Henry Edward Weeks, Blakey B. Laycock, and Thomas Fletcher, all of British or Australian nationality.  Mr. Wilkins saw these men when they were brought back to Santo Tomas after their capture.  Their hands were tied with rope and they were led in single file with a group of internees who stood in the hallway outside and listened to sounds issuing from the room while they were being beaten.  The blows were heavy and repeated, sounding like leather or wood on flesh.  Shouts and screams of pain followed.  One Japanese soldier came out and filled a bucket of water, then he re-entered the room.  The three men were taken kept in the room for a period of several hours before being released and removed to another location.  Those who saw them go out, said their faces were horribly beaten and marked, that two of them limped badly and all were in obvious physical distress.  Mr. Laycock’s shirt was splattered liberally with blood.  Mr. Wilkins was further informed by reliable witnesses that the following took place in the cemetery: “The three men were allowed some sort of spiritual attention by priests or lay clergy, all very brief, and then were marched to an open pit or grave and stood beside a mound of earth blindfolded.  A number of Japanese soldiers with pistols stood on the other side of the hole from then and shot at them on a given signal with small caliber pistol fire until they had crumpled or toppled into the hole.  Japanese soldiers went up and put more bullets into them at close range.  An explanation of the whole affair was made, upon instructions of the Japanese military, to all internees by our executive committee in the following word; ‘The Japanese Commandant has ordered that the three internees be informed that the penalty for escape from the camp is death by shooting, and that the three internees who recently attempted to escape have been tried by court martial and sentenced to death.’  The executive committee submitted a written petition to the Commandant advising the Japanese high command that the internees are deeply shocked at their decision and urgently requested that reconsideration be given to the ver­dict.  All such petitions and requests for leniency were ignored with the results previously described.”  (See Exhibits “B-20”, and “J”.)

     23. On 18 February 1945, at 1000, a Japanese soldier came into the De LaSalle College on Taft Avenue where Miss Emiliana Gonzaga of Paco, Manila, a maid in the house of Don Enrique Vasquez Prada was taking refuge from fire and shelling, and asked for a glass of water.  After asking for water he left. Suddenly a Japanese officer came.  He kicked the Japanese soldier and afterwards called up his men, about twenty, and ordered them to inspect the rooms of the college for people who might be hiding.  The people were told to file into the corridors and raise their hands. The soldiers fixed their bayonets and then cut all of the men. There were about eighty people in there.  The family for whom Miss Gonzaga worked were among them, having also taken shelter in De LaSalle College.  Dr. Cojuangco and family, Mr. De Carlos and famiiy, and Dr. Elchico and family were there. Miss Gonzaga was standing between two Brothers of the college when the first Brother was struck by a bayonet. He fell dead on her, and then the Japanese struck Miss Gonzaga with a bayonet on the back.  After bayoneting the whole group, the Japanese soldiers left.  Miss  Gonzaga was unable to give the names of other people killed. (See Exhibit “B-21”.)

     24. On 5 February 1945, the Japanese were gathering the guerillas in the place near Talipapa, Caloocan, Rizal.  A farmer, Pedro Herrera, thinking that the Japs would stop at his house, left the place and went to another house a short distance away.  He saw Americans machine gunning the Japanese.  The Japanese were not all killed, but the Americans left.  He went back to his place.  On the way, the Japanese saw him and started to shoot him and his companion who died.  Mr. Herrera was shot twice in the body, both shots going clear through. (See Exhibits “B-22” and “C-8”.)

     25.  On 10 February 1945, when the Japanese began to burn the house near the home of Mr. Enrique Soriano, Guadalupe, Makati, Rizal, a watchman for the National Distributors Corp., and to machine gun civilians, he and his family took shelter.  They met a group of Japanese who told them to stay in groups of went.  The Japanese made them lie on the ground, and then they threw hand grenades at them one of which went over Soriano’s head.  He lost consciousness, but when he regained it, he saw about him some twenty-three people with their children.  The names of those killed are unknown to Mr. Soriano, except his wife, Felicidad Cutaran.  There were three Japanese officers present in this action.  The Americans rescued Mr. Soriano about an hour after the shelling began.  (Exhibit “B-23”.)    

     26. On 10 February 1945, at 3:00 PM Japanese took five men consisting of three uncles and one servant of Mr. Aquilino Rivera, 1177 Dart, Paco, Manila, Dart, a student, from the house at that address.  They were told to stand in front of the house. When they came out there were fif­teen to eighteen other Filipino men there.  They were told to go forward to other houses about a block away from their house.  They were to be taken for forced labor.  The Japs took their jewelry and valuables and two other Japanese went to get more men.  The Japanese then tied their hands behind their backs and told them to go with those who had been tied before.  About three hundred were thus tied up. Guerillas were hidden in the bushes and began shooting at the Japs none were hit.  Then the group was told to go into another block.  About 5:00 PM that day the Japanese began to take the men in groups of ten along one line, and one by one along another line the groups of ten were shot.  Mr. Rivera saw his uncle shot and killed, together with about fifty others.  He saw many dead bodies of Filipinos.  Those who were taken one by one had their heads cut off.  Mr. Rivera was in the line of one by ones and the first to be cut by a sword.  There­ were three performing the executions by sword while only one was doing the shooting.  Mr. Rivera was cut in the neck and stabbed with a bayonet, and then pretended to be dead.  He was not blindfolded, nor were any of those in the line of one by ones.  Then the Japanese left and Mr. Rivera crawled over dead bodies back to his house about a block away.  He saw three Japanese so he hid in a coconut grove until they went away.  He later saw another Japanese who shot at him, but missed.  After he got in­to the house by climbing up the fire escape ladder, one of his aunts came and attended to his wounds.  Her name is Filomena R. Famuaco.  Americans rescued Mr. Rivera and told him and others to go to the Singalong Church.  Mr. Rivera does not know the names of people who were killed. (See Ex­hibit "B-24".)

     27. On or about the 15th of February 1945, exact date not recalled by the witness, Mr. Luis Trinidad, over 1,000 men, women, and children were brought into the San Agustin Church, Intramuros (Walled City), Manila, P. I.  There were others in another church who were held there for another two days.  The Japanese separated the men from the women and children.  The men were taken to Fort Santiago while the women and the children remained in the church.  For twelve days the men in Fort Santiago were without food or water.  Some of the men had dug a small hole and the people drank water from it when the Japanese were not around.  Later, some water was given to some of the people by the Japanese.  Those who drank it died, so it was believed the water was poisoned.  On 12 Febraury 1945, at about twelve noon, the men were put in different rooms by the Japanese and then barred the doors and windows.  They then poured gasoline on the floors and set fire to the buildings.  When this was done, some of the men did their best to break away and jump up the windows.  When the Japanese saw the escaping, they threw hand grenades at them, shot some, and bayoneted others.  Mr. Trinidad was bayoneted and burned badly.  (See Exhibits “B-25” and “C-9”.)

     28. On 13 February 1945, between nine and ten in the morning, Miss Consuelo Yillo was bayoneted by a Japanese soldier without cause.  She was living at 1077 Celestino, Aragon, and her family consisted of her mother, a brother, a sister, a niece and nephew.  There were only two who were not hurt – the brother, age 14, and a nephew, age 20.  The mother and niece were killed right there.     In that neighborhood it is estimated that about one hundred were killed by Japanese, as they were taking people from every house.  The Pellicer family of thirteen was all killed.  Many others were killed and wounded near Miss Yillo’s house with rifles, bay­onets, or machine guns.  Names of others are unknown to her. (See Exhi­bits “B-26" and “C-1O”.)

     29. At about noon on 18 February 1945, Mr. Benigno Hicayen, formerly a resident of Cebu City, Cebu, age 18, a cook, was shot by a Japanese in the Philippine General Hospital on Taft Avenue, Manila.  Mr. Hicayen had left his ward, #17, and two Japanese saw him in the corridor and shot him.  Mr. Hicayen fell down and the Japanese went away.  When they left, he  managed to get back to ward #l7.  Later, two Americans rescued him in the basement and took him to San Lazaro Hospital. (See Exhibit “B-27".)