Office of the Inspector General
APO #453


9 April 1945.

 IG 333.5 -Japanese Atrocities.


Report of Investigation of Alleged Atrocities by Members of the Japanese Imperial Forces in Manila and other parts of Luzon, Philippine Islands.

TO   :    Commanding General, XIV Corps, APO 453.

     I.   AUTHORITY.

  1. This investigation was made at the direction of the Commanding General, XIV Corps, by Colonel Emil Krause, IGD, and Lieu­tenant Colonel R. Graham Bosworth, IGD, during the period 25 February 1945, to 9 April 1945, at Luzon, Philippine Islands.


          2. This investigation was made pursuant to numerous alleged atrocities by members of the Japanese Imperial Forces as reported to the Commanding General, XIV Corps, from various sources.  Witnesses were interviewed at many of the hospitals in Manila, as well as at refugee camps and private homes.  In all cases where possible, the in­juries and wounds of all victims were examined and verified by the Inspector General conducting the investigation and photographs taken of some in the presence and with the assistance of nurses and/or doctors.  Statements were obtained from members of the military estab­lishment and from civilians who gave accounts of atrocities and names of reliable witnesses.  Some of these were not contacted as it is be­lieved their testimony would be repetition of other testimony already taken, and it is considered that sufficient testimony has been taken to reach accurate conclusions in this investigation.

3. The procuring of evidence of alleged cases of rape was difficult to obtain, because most women or girls did not desire to tes­tify to attacks made upon them, but testimony was taken from two witnesses on cases of rape.

4. This investigation was commenced by Colonel Emil Krause, for­mer Corps Inspector General, and most of the testimony taken personally by him.  Upon Colonel Krause’s being admitted to the hospital and evacuated from the Philippine Islands through medical channels, the investigation was completed by Lieutenant Colonel R. Graham Bosworth, Assistant Corps In­spector General.


              The testimony or exhibit which establishes each of the following facts is indicated in parentheses after each fact.

        5. On 23 February 1945, Mrs. Agido Upson was brought by an American ambulance to the Psychopathic Hospital, Welfareville Manila.  She had been bayoneted in the breasts by soldiers of the Japanese Army after having been tied and carried away by seven Japanese including an officer, to an open field where they wanted to assault or rape her.  They had previously attempted to assault her.  Upon her husband's refusal to 1et them, they were both bayoneted.  They were also separated from her two sisters-in-law.  The Japanese also wanted to rape, the other girls.  They took rice and other food which the women possessed and took other things that they wanted from the house.  The Japanese took their harvest of 900 kilos of rice and two bancas. (See Exhibits "B-l" and "C-111”.)

        6. On 23 February 1945, at about 4:00 PM, Miss Genoveva Poson, age 21, while in the yard of one of her neighbors, was asked by Japanese soldiers to go with them to the house of her friend whose name was Jul­iana Miguel where they asked her friend for civilian clothes.  When they refused to give the clothes or to go with them, the Japanese loaded a gun.  She told them not to shoot.  While she was going to get the civilian clothes to give to them, they shot her.    Many Japanese were trying to take Filipino women along with them, because the Americans were coming at that time.  She was freed and rescued by an American ambulance and taken to the Psychopathic Hospital, Welfareville, Manila. (See Exhibits "B-2" and “C-2".)

        7. On or about 18 February 1945, five Filipinos were standing together when Japanese soldiers came along and began shooting at them.  The Filipinos were told to move on, and when they did not do so, the Japanese shot four of them and bayoneted all five.  Miss Felisa Remo was the only survivor because she was bayoneted only in the leg and then lay still as if dead.  The Japanese wanted the girls to go with them, and when they refused, the girls were bayoneted.  The Japanese also wanted their food and when they refused to give it to them, they were bayoneted.  Miss Remo was rescued by Americans who took her to St. Joseph and from there to another hospital (name not determined) and then taken to the Psychopathic Hospital. (See Exhibit "B-3".)

     8. On or about 17 February 1945, five Filipinos, including Miss Aurora Garcia, were told to leave their houses as the Japanese said they intended to burn the houses before the Americans came.  Upon the group (number not determined) leaving the University at the Philippines, the Japanese told them to turn back.  When the group reached the next corner they asked permission of the sentry to go to the Philippine General Hospi­tal, which permission was granted.  After going about six yards, the sentry shot Miss Garcia in the breast and in one arm.  Her brother then took her to the hospital.  On the way to the hospital Japanese soldiers again tried to shoot them.  She stayed in the Philippine General Hospital for eight days, and from there was taken to San Lazaro Hospital which, being overcrowded, resulted in her being taken to two, other hospitals and then to the Psychopathic Hospital.  She saw the Japanese tie up some of the Filipino men and machine gun them when they did not leave their houses as they were told to do.  All houses in the neighborhood were burned by the Japanese.(See Exhibit “B-4".)

     9. On or about 20 February 1945, at 4:00 PM, three officers and four or five soldiers, came to the home of Mrs. Alice Stahl, a former German opera singer born in Germany, age 50, married to an American.  She is now awaiting her American citizenship papers.  The Japanese asked fro some newspapers of which she had none.  They then took away all of her jewelry and contents of a handbag.  They did the same to her brother and sister-in-law and then said, “Come outside.”  They went outside and stood in the court where other people had already assembled.  There were small children from eight to nine years old, a Filipino woman, a German family, a Dr. Lurse who had a child eight years old.  The Japanese tied their hands and took their small belongings and small handbags and put all of them in one room of one of the houses in the vicinity of 176 Balagtas Court, Pasay, Rizal.  The Japanese, armed with grenades and guns, then brought in buckets of fuel and put it on the furniture.  Mrs. Stahl’s sister-in-law was killed immediately as was her friend, Mrs. Lurse and her child.  The Japanese burned the house, and many people were burned and three shot.  Mrs. Stahl was able to go upstairs, but when she got up there, the flames kept her from going back so she had to jump, following her brother and doctor.  Her brother cut her, and the others, loose and they went to an air raid shelter and stayed until the next morning at seven o’clock.  They endeavored to get food and water, but were able to find water.  They found a garden where several people were starving, thirsty, and still waiting for rescue.  Everything was lost in the fire.  The following persons were killed, or shot dead:  Mrs. Frankel, Mrs. Stahl’s sister-in-law, and Mrs. Lurse and her child, and a Filipino family by the name of Villareal.  The names of the other persons were unknown to Mrs. Stahl.  (See Exhibits “B-5” and “C-3”.)

     10. On or about 17 February 1945, the Japanese kept throwing rockets for about two or three days where Mrs. M. Elena Maldonado, age 22, was living.  When her house was hit and was burning she and the other occupants left.  Other people in the same block left with them to go to the next block, and while so leaving were fired upon by the Japanese sentinels.  They went to Dr. Moreta’s house, where there were about fifty-four people, which was still standing, and found shelter and food stuffs there, remaining a few days.  On the following day in the morning, a Japanese came and said he wanted a woman.  Then, after leaving and returning in a few minutes, he put the men in the bathroom and the women in the kitchen.  One of the Jap soldiers tried to take a woman, but she struggled and he shot her twice, killing her and hitting Mrs. Maldonado in the neck.  While she was bending over, they took her in the hall and bayoneted her in the chest and twice in the back.  The same was done to other ladies who were behind Mrs. Maldonado.  The Japanese also shot three girls, one of whom was the sister of Mrs. Maldonado, because they struggled when the Japanese tried to rape them.  About eighteen Japanese soldiers and one officer were engaged in these acts.  While the men were in the bathroom of Dr. Moreta’s house, a grenade was thrown into it by the Japanese.  Mr. Joseph Maldonado kicked the grenade away just as it exploded, blowing part of his foot away.  The Japanese threw eight hand grenades into the bathroom.  Mr. Maldonado was completely deaf from the shock of the explosion.  That night the Japanese again threw two hand grenades into the house and burned it.  There were about forty people burned in the house.  The names of some of the people burned or killed are:  Tirso Lizarraga, father of Mrs. Maldonado, Rosa Lizarraga. Carlos Garcia and wife, Mrs. Qabaljaunepe and daughter, Mrs. Prudencio Chicote and daughter, a Mrs. York and six Chinese, Vicente and Pilar Julian.  (See Exhibits “B-6”, “B-7”, and C-4”.)

     11. On Friday, February 9th, 1945, the Japanese burned the house belonging to Mrs. Mary Barrientos, an American Mestiza, age 36.  She is a high school graduate, whose father was an American and a mother a Filipino.  Mrs. Barrientos married a Filipino.  The people in the house moved to another place for safety as did many people, running from house to house until they were cornered.  Everybody took cover the best they could, some hiding under trucks in a garage.  There were about seventy-five people in the garage.  The Japanese began shooting at them with machine guns.  About twenty-five men and women were killed.  Mrs. Barrientos was shot in the left thigh.  In the group were Indians and Chinese.  The Indians wanted to surrender, but were convinced that they should remain in the shelter and told them they were safe.  On the following day they were brought to San Lazaro Hospital, Manila.  The following persons were killed: Dra. Paz Mendoza Guanzon; a member of German family by the name of Kummerfeld; Justice Alejandro Albert.  Others not know.  In the neighborhood of this woman’s home about three hundred people were killed by the dynamiting and burning of their homes.  (See Exhibit “B-8”.)

     12. On or about 9 February 1945, Mr. Vicente Barrientos, Paco, Manila was machine gunned by Japanese soldiers in both thighs while his house was burning and after taking shelter in an open garage.  There were about three hundred Filipinos in the garage who were tied up and many shot by four Japanese soldiers and an officer.  The Japanese called for the men for forced labor.  About fifty of this group survived.  Mr. Barrientos, a survivor, was a former city detective.  (See Exhibit “B-9”.)

     13. Dr. Gregorio D. Dizon is a Filipino citizen who took post graduate work in public health at the University of the Philippines and who made a tour of inspection of public health centers in the United States and Europe, as well as a visit to the Imperial University of Tokyo in 1939.  In Ward #4 of San Lazaro Hospital there were about three hundred patients, three or four of whom had been stabbed or wounded with a bayonet.  He was unable to locate these patients due to transfers and confusion.  In Ward #15 there were about one hundred sixty patients, about six or seven of whom were starved or bayoneted by the Japanese.  (See Exhibit “B-10”.)

     14. Early in the morning of 10 February l945, a Japanese sentry came to the house of Dr. Jose Guidote, 1568 General Luna, Manila, a physician of epidemiology, Bureau of Health, and told the inhabitants to leave the house.  The members of his family, consisting of his wife, son, two maids, Dr. Manuel Navarro and his wife, father and nephew, who were all living with him at the time, left the house.  They intended to go to the Philippine General Hospital, but the streets around his house were blocked with land mines, thus preventing going to that destination. After searching around, they were able to find a place for safety, several blocks away.  In that place were approximately eight people; men, women, and chil­dren, all Filipinos.  Several people were injured by shelling, one of whom was the father of Dr. Navarro who lived for only about half an hour after being struck by shrapnel on the side of the head.  While he was attending wounded relatives and other people, Dr. Guidote was wounded in the left wrist by a bullet which went all the way through.  During the shelling, three Japanese soldiers, one a sergeant, with pistols, bayonets and band grenades, came to the place and asked all of the men to go from that place.  At that time there were about twenty-five men.  The Japs tied their hands, including those of. Dr. Guidote, and they were about to be shot when two Japanese officers suddenly came and spoke to the soldiers.  The people were then untied and sent back to their hiding place.  After they were in­side, the Japanese threw hand grenades at the building, shooting men, women, and children indiscriminately.  About twenty people were killed during that time, including two of Dr. Guidote's relatives.  One, whose name was Milagros Alvarez de Navarro, was pregnant and hit in the abdomen.  The other was Benedicto Navarro who was hit in the head and killed immediately.  After this last shooting the Japanese soldiers disappeared from the place.  They left because the American soldiers were about to liberate them as they (the Americans) were just on the other side of the street.  Dr. Guidote stated that he thought the Japanese untied them so that the Americans could not see that they had been tied.  All were liberated on the following day, 12 February, at about 2:00 PM by American soldiers (See exhibit “B-11”.)