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1. The general Japanese sources used in the preparation of this section are: SWPA Hist Series, II, 461-64; 14th Area Army Tr Org List; Japanese Studies in WW II, No. 125, Philippine Area Naval Opns, pt. IV, pp. 29-32; Asano Statement, States, I, 94-95; Hashimoto Statement, States, I, 278-81; Colonel Koboyashi Statement, States, II, 250-52; Kayashima Statement, States, II, 157-70.

2. Additional information on the counterattack effort is from: 1st Cav Div G-2 Summary Luzon, pp. 12-15; 112th RCT Rpt Luzon, pp. 6-8; 1st Cav Div Rpt Luzon, pp. 13-14; 7th Cav Rpt Luzon, pp. 13-14; 1st Cav Div G-2 Jnl, 15-20 Feb 45; 8th Cav Rpt Luzon, Novaliches Water Shed Phase, pp. 1-2; 2d Cav Brig Rpt Luzon, pp. 6-7.

3. G-2 GHQ FEC, Intelligence Activities in the Philippines During the Japanese Occupation, 10 Jun 48, pp. 87-88, in OCMH files.

4. Detailed information on the Mabato Point action is to be found in: 11th A/B Div Rpt Luzon, pp. 6, 17, 29; 11th A/B Div G-3 Per Rpts, 19-23 Feb 45; 1st Bn 187th Gli Inf Chron Narrative MIKE VI Opn, p. 9.

5. Information on the Fort McKinley actions is from: XIV Corps Rpt Luzon, pt. I, pp. 94-96, 99, 227-29; 11th A/B Div Rpt Luzon, pp. 6, 17, 29; 11th A/B Div G-3 Per Rpts, 13-20 Feb 45; 5th Cav Rpt Luzon, pp. 14-17; 12th Cav Rpt Luzon, p. 11; 188th Inf Rpt Luzon, pp. 8-9.

On 13 February, during the attack toward Fort McKinley from the south, Pfc. Manuel Perez, Jr., of Company A, 511th Parachute Infantry, won the Medal of Honor for heroic action in reducing Japanese pillboxes that had held up the advance of his company.

6. Further details of the methods of fighting employed south of the Pasig are to be found in XIV Corps, Japanese Defense of Cities, pp. 2, 10, 13-14, 19-23.

7. The general sources for U.S. operations described in this chapter are: XIV Corps Rpt Luzon, pt. I, pp. 89-113; XIV Corps, Japanese Defense of Cities, passim; 37th Div Rpt Luzon, pp. 37-77; 37th Div G-3 Per Rpts, 10-23 Feb 45; 1st Cav Div Rpt Luzon, Narrative, pp. 4-14; Wright, 1st Cavalry Division in WW II, pp. 130-33; 1st Cav Div G-3 Opns Rpts, 12-26 Feb 45; 1st Cav Brig Rpt Luzon, pt. I, pp. 2-6; 1st Cav Brig S-3 Per Rpts, 12-23 Feb 45; 37th Div G-3 Jnls and Jnl Files, 10-23 Feb 45; 1st Cav Div G-3 Jnl, 10-26 Feb 45; 2d Cav Brig Jnl Files, 10-23 Feb 45; XIV Corps Arty Rpt Luzon, pp. 11-12; 37th Div Arty Rpt Luzon, pp. 9-10; 1st Cav Div Arty Rpt Luzon, pt. II, Chron Rcd, pp. 5-15; ibid., pt. III, Unit Jnl, 10-23 Feb 45.

8. Additional material on 5th and 12th Cavalry operations is from: 12th Cav Rpt Luzon, pp. 8-14; 12th Cav Unit Rpts, 12-23 Feb 45; 5th Cav Rpt Luzon, pp. 10-27; 5th Cav S-3 Per Rpts, 12-23 Feb 45; 5th Cav S-2/S-3 Jnl, 12-23 Feb 45.

9. About half the wounded were returned to duty without hospitalization.

10. XIV Corps Opns Memo 19, 16 Feb 45, in file of corps opns memos; XIV Corps FO 7, 17 Feb 45, Sixth Army G-3 Jnl File Luzon, 16-18 Feb 45; 37th Div Opns Memo 7, 17 Feb 45, XIV Corps G-3 Jnl File. 17-18 Feb 45; 12th Cav Rpt Luzon, pp. 11-12.

11. 12th Cav Unit Rpt 19, 19 Feb 45.

12. Personal observation of the author. In April 1945 the old wing was repaired and here, ultimately, were domiciled many male officers of GHQ SWPA, though one floor was given over to WAC officers assigned to that headquarters. No attempt was made to repair the new wing during the war.

13. 129th Inf Rpt Luzon, p. 6. Additional material on 129th Infantry operations in this chapter is from: 129th Inf Rpt Luzon, pp. 7-9; 129th Inf Hist 1810-1945, pp. 62-66; 129th Inf S-3 Per Rpts, 10-23 Feb 45; 129th Inf Regtl Jnl, 10-23 Feb 45.

14. Additional information on tank action is from 754th Tank Battalion Report Luzon, Phase VI, Battle of Manila.

15. Additional information in this chapter on 145th Infantry operations is from: 145th Inf Rpt Luzon, pp. 20-29; 145th Inf S-3 Per Rpts, 12-23 Feb 45; 145th Inf S-1 and S-3 Jnls, 12-23 Feb 45; 716th Tank Bn Rpt Luzon, Assault Gun Platoon Action in Manila.

16. GHQ SWPA ultimately used the west wing--repaired by mid-April--for office space during the headquarters' stay in Manila.

17. Additional information on the Post Office fight came from: Milton Comments, 15 Dec 56; Beightler Comments, 18 Mar 57.

18. Additional information on 148th Infantry operations is from: 148th Inf Rpt Luzon, pt. I, pp. 6-9; 148th Inf S-1 and S-3 Per Rpts, 12-23 Feb 45; 148th Inf S-3 Jnl, 12-23 Feb 45.

19. Almost all information on the 148th Infantry's mortar and artillery support comes from the regimental S-3 reports. See also 140th FA Bn Unit Jnl, 12-23 Feb 45; 140th FA Bn S-3 Per Rpts, 12-23 Feb 45.

20. General Beightler, commenting on this passage, called it "a misstatement of fact" and an "attempt to belittle the 37th Division." Beightler Comments, 18 Mar 57. The author's account is based upon the 5th Cavalry's records: 5th Cav Rpt Luzon, p. 17; 5th Cav S-2/S-3 Jnl, 19 Feb 45; 5th Cav S-2 Per Rpt 14, 19-20 Feb 45; 5th Cav S-3 Per Rpts 15 and 16, 18-19 and 19-20 Feb 45. The 148th Infantry records contain no information on the point.

21. The claim probably includes dead found within the building.

22. No reliable figures for the 5th Cavalry's non-battle casualties can be found in available records, but it appears that they were in proportion to those of the 148th Infantry.

23. The three companies had entered the fight with an average understrength of 43 men, making the net loss during the battle 32 men per company. The 5th Cavalry's troops were also understrength, but no usable figures can be found.