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1. This section is based principally upon: AGS SWPA Terrain Study No. 94, Central Luzon, vol. I, Text and Maps, 18 Oct 44; AGS SWPA Terrain Handbook No. 41, Manila, 21 Nov 44; AGS SWPA Terrain Handbook No. 41-A, Manila City, 6 Dec 44; Encyclopędia Britannica, 1952, XIV, 806-08. Throughout this and subsequent chapters on Manila, descriptive material has been supplemented by the author's own observations, since he was stationed in Manila for almost nine months in 1945 and revisited it in April 1957.

 2. Like the rivers throughout Luzon, the streets in Manila are subject to sudden name changes, apparently on the basis of long usage.

3. See Morton, Fall of the Philippines, pp. 234-35.

4. The general sources for the remainder of this chapter are: SWPA Hist Series, II, 452-63, and the sources cited therein, copies available in OCMH files; USA vs. Yamashita, Yamashita testimony, pp. 3522-23, 3527-28, 3532-33; ibid., Lt Gen Shizuo Yokoyama (CG Shimbu Gp) testimony, pp. 2672-73, 2681-86, 2693; ibid., Muto testimony, pp. 3015-18, 3062; ibid., Col Hiroshi Hashimoto (CofS Manila Defense Force) testimony, pp. 3113-17; 14th Area Army Opns Orders and Plans contained in Trans, III, Items 1 and 3; Japanese Studies in WW II, No. 125, Philippine Area Naval Opns, pt. IV, pp. 5-8; Asano Statement, States, I, 87-95; Hashimoto Statement, States I, 278-81.

5. USA vs. Yamashita, Yamashita testimony, p. 3527.

6. Additional material on Japanese naval plans and depositions is from: USA vs. Yamashita, Okochi testimony, pp. 2546-47; Statement of Capt Masayoshi Koma, IJN (Staff Southwest Area Fleet), States, II, 293; Statement of Comdr Shigeichi Yamamoto (Staff Southwest Area Fleet), States, IV, 488; Statement of Lt Comdr Koichi Kayashima (Staff Manila Naval Defense Forceand 31st Naval Special Base Force), States, II, 157-70; Statement of Col Shujiro Kobayashi (Staff Shimbu Group, not to be confused with General Kobayashi), States, II, 241.

7. For further analysis of this peculiar command situation, see A. Frank Reel, The Case of General Yamashita (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1949).

8. The words are Colonel Asano's, repeating Iwabuchi, and appear in Asano Statement, Statements, I, 93. Yokoyama, in his testimony cited previously, makes essentially the same point.

9. The quotations are from SWPA Hist Series, II, 458.

10. Kayashima Statement, States, II, 170.

11. Additional information on Japanese strengths and dispositions presented in this subsection is from: ATIS SWPA, Enemy Publication No. 389, Organization Chart of Manila Naval Defense Force, 19 Sep 45, copy in OCMH files; XIV Corps. Japanese Defense of Cities as Exemplified by The Battle for Manila, p. 3; ibid., an. 2, Disposition Chart, and an. 4, Org Chart Kobayashi Gp; Entry 2, 0100 10 Feb 44, G-2 Jnl 1st Cav Div, giving information from a Japanese POW; 11th A/B Div Rpt Luzon, pp. 13-14, 16, 29; ibid., Maps 1, 2, and C.

13. By the time he had completed his organization Iwabuchi was wearing four hats: 31st Naval Special Base Force, Manila Naval Defense Force, Central Force, and Headquarters Sector Unit. Apparently the staffs for all except the last were virtually identical.

14. XIV Corps, Japanese Defense of Cities, p. 10.

15. Subsequent description of Japanese weapons is based largely upon: XIV Corps, Japanese Defense of Cities, pp. 10-13; 11th A/B Div Luzon Rpt, p. 29; WD Tech Manual, TM-E-30-480, Handbook on Japanese Military Forces, 15 Sep 44, and changes thereto dated 1 Jan and 1 Jun 45. The XIV Corps and manual descriptions of calibers and model numbers of the arms encountered are not always in agreement.