F O O T
N O T
1. This section is based principally upon: AGS SWPA Terrain Study
No. 94, Central Luzon, vol. I, Text and Maps, 18 Oct 44; AGS SWPA Terrain
Handbook No. 41, Manila, 21 Nov 44; AGS SWPA Terrain Handbook No. 41-A,
Manila City, 6 Dec 44; Encyclopędia
Britannica, 1952, XIV,
806-08. Throughout this and subsequent chapters on Manila, descriptive
material has been supplemented by the author's own observations, since he
was stationed in Manila for almost nine months in 1945 and revisited it in
2. Like the rivers throughout Luzon, the streets in Manila are
subject to sudden name changes, apparently on the basis of long usage.
3. See Morton, Fall
of the Philippines, pp.
4. The general sources for the remainder of this chapter are:
SWPA Hist Series, II, 452-63, and the sources cited therein, copies
available in OCMH files; USA vs. Yamashita,
Yamashita testimony, pp. 3522-23, 3527-28, 3532-33; ibid., Lt
Gen Shizuo Yokoyama (CG Shimbu
Gp) testimony, pp. 2672-73, 2681-86, 2693; ibid., Muto
testimony, pp. 3015-18, 3062; ibid., Col
Hiroshi Hashimoto (CofS Manila
Defense Force) testimony, pp. 3113-17; 14th
Area Army Opns Orders and
Plans contained in Trans, III, Items 1 and 3; Japanese Studies in WW II, No.
125, Philippine Area Naval Opns, pt. IV, pp. 5-8; Asano Statement, States,
I, 87-95; Hashimoto Statement, States I, 278-81.
5. USA vs. Yamashita,
Yamashita testimony, p. 3527.
6. Additional material on Japanese naval plans and depositions is
from: USA vs. Yamashita,
Okochi testimony, pp. 2546-47; Statement of Capt Masayoshi Koma, IJN (Staff Southwest
Area Fleet), States, II, 293; Statement of Comdr Shigeichi Yamamoto
(Staff Southwest Area Fleet),
States, IV, 488; Statement of Lt Comdr Koichi Kayashima (Staff Manila
Naval Defense Forceand 31st
Naval Special Base Force), States, II, 157-70; Statement of Col Shujiro
Kobayashi (Staff Shimbu Group, not
to be confused with General Kobayashi), States, II, 241.
7. For further analysis of this peculiar command situation, see
A. Frank Reel, The Case of
General Yamashita (Chicago:
University of Chicago Press, 1949).
8. The words are Colonel Asano's, repeating Iwabuchi, and appear
in Asano Statement, Statements, I, 93. Yokoyama, in his testimony cited
previously, makes essentially the same point.
9. The quotations are from SWPA Hist Series, II, 458.
10. Kayashima Statement, States, II, 170.
11. Additional information on Japanese strengths and dispositions
presented in this subsection is from: ATIS SWPA, Enemy Publication No. 389,
Organization Chart of Manila
Naval Defense Force, 19 Sep
45, copy in OCMH files; XIV Corps. Japanese Defense of Cities as Exemplified
by The Battle for Manila, p. 3; ibid., an.
2, Disposition Chart, and an. 4, Org Chart Kobayashi
Gp; Entry 2, 0100 10 Feb 44,
G-2 Jnl 1st Cav Div, giving information from a Japanese POW; 11th A/B Div
Rpt Luzon, pp. 13-14, 16, 29; ibid., Maps
1, 2, and C.
13. By the time he had completed his organization Iwabuchi was
wearing four hats: 31st Naval
Special Base Force, Manila Naval Defense Force, Central Force, and Headquarters
Sector Unit. Apparently the
staffs for all except the last were virtually identical.
14. XIV Corps, Japanese Defense of Cities, p. 10.
15. Subsequent description of Japanese weapons is based largely
upon: XIV Corps, Japanese Defense of Cities, pp. 10-13; 11th A/B Div Luzon
Rpt, p. 29; WD Tech Manual, TM-E-30-480, Handbook on Japanese Military
Forces, 15 Sep 44, and changes thereto dated 1 Jan and 1 Jun 45. The XIV
Corps and manual descriptions of calibers and model numbers of the arms
encountered are not always in agreement.