30. In the early part of February
at about 7:00 PM, a group of Japanese, most of them officers, came to the
house, of Miss Asuncion Marvas, 239 San Marcellino, Manila.
Marvas, and the members of her family were taken to the German
were an estimated five hundred people assembled there.
When anyone attempted to leave the building they were shot or hand
grenades were thrown at them.
Most of the people were killed because the place
Miss Marvas wanted to go away, but the Japanese stabbed her in the
She was lying on
at the time they stabbed her.
Then, to be sure that she was dead, one of the Japanese again bayoneted
her. The names of
killed were not determined.
About a week later Americans took Miss Marvas to the Psychopathic
Hospital, Manila. Her wounds
were not attended to before that, as she hid in a dugout with others.
Even though she was a
unable to dress her wounds because of no material.
On 3 March, the inspector general conducting the investigation
informed that Miss
Marvas was in a serious
condition and was expected to die because tetanus (lockjaw) had set
in. Miss Marvas saw a one
month old baby killed. Before throwing hand grenades mo the German Club
and burning it, the Japanese allowed the Germans to leave the club.
(See Exhibit "B-28".)
31. On 11
February 1945, at about 6:00 PM, just after Mr. Lim Kinnog Tiang,
Chinese, age 23, a grocer, had closed his store, the Japanese came and
brought over one hundred Fllipinos and Chinese who were all tied up.
The Japanese covered the eyes of the men by taking strips of cloth
and blindfolding them. The
victims were then taken in groups of ten upstairs and had their heads cut
off. The bodies were dumped
into the basement. Mr. Tiang
in a group of ten blindfolded, his neck cut with a sword, before he fell
into the basement. Later,
after escaping from the building
to a hospital on Rizal Avenue.
The men who were beheaded were tricked by the Japanese into
thinking they were being taken for forced labor. (See Exhibit "B-29".)
Major Hans G. Hornbostel, San Juan, Rizal,
of Coco Grove Mining
Company, at the time of the out-break of war, later commisioned a captain
in the Army and then promoted to a major and finally interned
prisoner of war at
Camp Cabanatuan. He was one
of the last men of
the American Army who left Bataan on the forced march
approximately twelve days after the surrender.
good physical condition
at the time,
detailed by the
Japanese as a member of the burial squad.
In carrying out his work, he personally
prisoners of war, both American and Filipino, thrown into open graves who
were not dead, about fifty in number.
The Japanese did not allow Americans to knock any of the men over
the head. Most of them
in a coma
exhaustion of the march.
The graves were then covered.
were open latrines because the Japanese did not consider that there was
sufficient time to dig regular graves.
They removed identification tags and threw them in the bushes
before burying the bodies. On
the march with him, any who could not keep up with the column were shot.
Americans and Filipinos endeavored to carry some
of the men, but
they were compelled to let them go after a while:, for their own
protection and the column passed on.
The canteens wetre taken from the war prisoners and on some days
they were without water for six to seven hours.
They received one meal of
watery rice per day. They marched to the town of San Fernando
in Pampanga Province. There they were put into iron box cars normally
handling about forty people.
About one hundred twenty men were crowded into a single car.
The doors were closed and many of the men became unconscious and
very sick. When, they reached
the town near Camp 0’Donnell, they were in bad shape.
Filipinos died at the rate of four hundred a day, and the Americans
lost about eighty per day.
There were approximately three hundred fifty white men in his section, and
Filipinos were strung along for miles.
Accompanying them were many senior officers from II Corps.
Major Hornbostel was the oldest
of the group.
(See Exhibit "B-30".)
b. The members
of the column were
in Camp O’Donnell for several weeks, and then were packed into box cars
again and sent to Cabanatuan, known as Camp #1.
They left Camp O’Donnell in the morning and arrived early in
the evening because it was necessary to got to Manila and then north
again. They had no water.
They were camped in a swampy location after being exhausted from
the trip, and were forced to stay out in the rain, though there were
buildings available in which they could have been quartered.
Some died after the trip.
Major Hornbostel was in that camp for three years.
The prisoners received two meals a day, consisting of watery rice
and some vegetables. That is
all that was given to them with the exception
of food from two
shipments of, Red Cross food the second and third Christmases.
Over one-third of the entire camp died
(See Exhibit "B-30".)
c. The Japanese posted
orders that anyone who attempted to escape would be shot.
Those who attempted to escape prior to that were tied to a barbed
wire fence and tortured for forty-eight hours with no food or water.
After that they were compelled to dig their own graves and then
were shot. This was done
close to where the prisoners were staying and it was apparently done
within their sight in order to harass the prisoners. (See Exhibit “B-30".)
d. The KPs (kitchen
police) were lined up and made to say before every meal five or six times,
“Roosevelt is a son of a bitch.”
Absolutely no distinction was shown between officers and enlisted
prisoners of war.
The officers were often given dirtier jobs than the enlisted men
and were put on KP just as enlisted men were.
One of the
men who had received the Congressional Medal
of Honor during
the Bataan campaign, after the Japanese had learned by inquiry as to who
had been decorated, was immediately placed on KP duty.
Major Hornbostel’s duties
to clean the “G strings” of the Nip guards.
(See Exhibit “C-30”.)
e. Major Hornbostel
testified to the following opinion: “In my opinion it would be a great
mistake for the internees to mention to the Press, or even to their
friends, how they managed, in spite of their Jap captors, to receive food
and assistance, how they managed to have radios in the camp, because if
they do, they
very hard for the many thousands of other Americans, both military and
civilian, who are now interned in Jap hands.” (See Exhibit “B-30”.)
33. On or
about the 20th of February 1945, The Japanese came to the house of Mr.
Francisco Castellote, Manila age 26, married with two children
(one dead), a soldier in Bataan before the war where he was cooking a
meal. He, as others, was told
by the Japanese
to come with forced labor, and that
would be given rice rations.
Mr. Castellote went with the Japanese and when he arrived, a short
distance away, men were formed in a long line and separated into groups of
ten. These groups were blindfolded and taken one by one to a room with a
window so that it could be used for beheading.
Mr. Castellote could hear the news of the spear or saber when the
Japanese were ready to cut.
When Mr. Castellote’s turn came, one end of the spear hit the window sill
and the other struck the neck, cutting a very deep gash, but not going all
the way through. In rear of
him there was a Japanese who pushed those who had been beheaded out of the
window where the bodies fell.
Evidently, it was unobserved by the Japanese that his head was not cut
off, for they pushed him through the window.
He fell to the ground and remained as if dead.
He was unconscious over night and he stayed there for about six
days. He heard Americans
coming and he shouted for help when he thought they were near enough to
hear him. The Americans found
him and took him to the Chinese General Hospital, Manila.
He did not know the names of others killed.
His house was burned, and he has not heard from members of his
family since, and does not know whether they are living or dead.
The inspector general conducting the investigation examined, in the
presence of a nurse, the cut on Mr. Castellote’s neck.
It was 3 ½
inches long, 1 ½
inches deep, and 1 ½
inches wide. (See Exhibit
Tom Foo, houseboy for the Newland Baldwin family, was working for
another family by the name of Smith in Malate while the Baldwins were
interned in Santo Tomas Camp.
He was intercepted by a Japanese while he was enroute to the Smith home.
The Japanese did not speak English but merely spoke some words out
of a book. He asked Mr. Foo
where he lived. On another
trip he as again asked, and then later, by three other sentries and they
said, “Come with me.” He
stood on the corner of Georgia and Remedios, dates not determined, where
the Japanese continued stopping people and asking them the same question.
When they reported that they had no family or children, the
Japanese would take them.
They took fifteen people in that manner, and in the group were two
Chinese, three Mestizos and the rest Filipinos.
They were taken to a house at the end of the block, and after a
half hour, two Japanese came and then two Japanese Naval officers.
All civilians were asked their address and occupation.
Mr. Foo told them that he had worked for the Japanese embassy staff
which was using the Baldwin house.
Mr. Foo saw Japanese each day for four days, making two trips a
day, taking furniture, china and glass ware away from the house.
He asked the chauffeur where the things were being taken and was
told to the Luneta. Mr. Foo
did not see any Japanese
civilians. (See Exhibit "B-32".)
35. On 14
February 1945, at about 11:00 PM, Mrs. Maria Jaledo age 44, Spanish
house girl for the Manuel Pinto family, 27 Calle San Carlos, Ermita,
Manila, left the house as it was burning.
She took her child, age 13, going with Mr. Pinto and his two
children. As shells were
falling in that area, they all dropped to the ground, but Mr. Pinto was
hit in the shoulder by shrapnel and killed.
Mrs. Jaledo went into the house of Dr. Mareta about two blocks from
the house she had left where there were about two hundred people.
When the Japanese soldiers came, they asked Mrs. Jaledo if she
could cook. As she could,
they took her and that is the reason she was saved.
More than fifty people who ran for safety died from hand grenades
or being bayoneted by the Japanese.
One hand grenade hit and killed her child.
Others were killed by the same grenade.
There were five soldiers throwing the hand grenades.
They were carrying bags containing grenades.
They also fired machine guns into the people in the house.
The number killed was not determined by Mrs. Jaledo because there
were so many. She was hit in
the arm by shrapnel. ( See Exhibit "B-33".)
a. The home of Mr. C. Roesholm,1306 F. B. Harrison, Manila,
Managing Director of Caltex Philippines, Inc.,
age 55, Danish,
married to an American, citizen, was surrounded by Japanese for along
period, during the Japanese occupation in
August 1944, the members of the Roesholm family were told to get out.
The Japanese took possession and gave the Roesholms instructions
that they were to have no further communication with anyone, and not to
show up on the premises again.
b. In the beginning of 1944 the Japanese came several times and
disputed Mr. Roesholm's passport and papers and insisted that he was
hiding his American passport.
They demanded that he produce, the passport prior to the one in his
possession. He was able to do
so which proved that he was not there by illegal entry.
He was finally told, “If you are not an American, you are American
in principle." A few days
later five MPs arrived tagging at the furniture and putting signs on the
house, “suspected enemy property.”
They were given four days to leave the house.
The Japanese left them two beds, two chairs, a small ice box, an
electric stove, and told them they were not to touch anything that was
tagged. Between August 1944
and January1945, they stayed in the house, never venturing outside.
At the beginning of February, 1945, the shelling began and became
more intensified from the American side, so they moved to an air raid
shelter and lived there most of the
buildings surrounding them burned.
The shelter was in
Militaire and the other streets
were heavily mined. They
stayed in the shelter up to the 17th of February.
The American troops arrived on the 16th and on the following day
they were advised to move, but they were afraid to leave because of the
shrapnel and snipers in the vicinity.
Two days before the Americans came, four Japanese soldiers took
charge of the premises where they were located and said they were looking
for an American. They took
some possessions such as watches.
They wanted Mr. Roesholm's cigarette lighter, but he told them he
did not want them to take it.
The Japanese insisted at the point of a rifle, so he had to give it to
them. The other men around
there were scared because of this action, and what might follow.
The last morning when they were told to get out, the Japanese said
they would burn the Lena Apartments and for them to go toward Santa Ana.
They left on foot with their few belongings toward Paco, and Mr.
Roesholm soon passed out from shock and exhaustion, but his wife was able
to put him in a push cart, and with a Filipino took him to,a small Nipa
hut. An American MP insisted
on taking Mr. Roesholm to an aid station where they tried to revive him,
but to no avail. He was then
taken by ambulance to Santo Tomas where the doctors worked over him for
several hours, finally reviving him.
He was unconscious for seven or eight hours.
He testified that no where could he have received better attention
than he did at Santo Tomas in the hands of U. S. Army doctors.
c. Mr. Roesholm tried, at one time, to put out the fire in his
house and was almost shot in doing so.
The Japanese shot anyone who tried to put out fires.
They burned all of the section
of Military Plaza,
including the former homes of the commanding general, his aide, and
members of his staff. (See Exhibit “B-34”.)
37. a. The
Archbishop of Manila temporarily residing in the Seminary at Santo Tomas
University, Manila, (internment camp) has lived in the Philippines since
1911 and has been Archbishop of Manila since 1916.
He testified that he had no personal evidence of any Japanese
atrocities and had not even seen a single person dead who was a victim of
the Japanese, with the exception of the Very Reverend Francis Cosgrave, a
member of the Redemptorist Order, whom the Archbishop visited many times
in the hospital after Father Cosgrave bad been bayoneted twice through the
chest by a Japanese soldier in De LaSalle College acting under orders of
his superior officers. The
Archbishop testified that he had heard of many attacks on private families
and groups of villagers during the night, but was unable to vouch
definitely for any of these outrages.
His own secretary, the Reverend Rufino Santos, was apprehended in
the Archbishop's palace at 2:00 AM (date not determined), and although the
Archbishop had not been able to contact him thus far, he understands that
Reverend Santos was treated in a vile manner, and that he was promised
that his life would be saved if he would incriminate the Archbishop.
Another of his parish
priests was arrested and kept in Fort Santiago for four months.
This was the parish priest
of Diliman and on his
first visit from the prison to the Archbishop's house, all that could be
said of him was that he was a living skeleton.
This priest also told the
Archbishop that he was promised his life on condition of incriminating the
Archbishop. The Archbishop
stated that the mere sight of our internees in Santo Tomas is a very
proof of the Japanese cruelty.
Father Buttenbruck was arrested in February 1944, by the Japanese
and was released in June of the same year.
Subsequently in December 1944, he was again arrested. It is
presumed that he disappeared because he has not been seen since.
b. The Archbishop made
no official record of reports of any massacres or atrocities by members of
the Japanese Imperial Army.
The Japanese were in and out of his house a great many times.
They often ransacked the rooms of the Archbishop's secretaries and
they took them as prisoners.
They took away a document with the names
of all of the Archbishop’s parishes and the numbers of
communions, confessions and catechism classes, which the Japanese thought
were the names and numbers of guerillas.
Archbishop's palace and residence was in the Walled City next to the
piers. Buildings in the
Walled City were raised to the ground with the exception of the San
Augustin ChUrch which had in it about 1,800 refugee women and children who
were saved. The top of one of
the towers was struck by several artillery shells.
The saving of this building attests to the accuracy of American
artillery, as well as to the humane methods and considerations of American
troops. The building in
which the Archbishop is now
living, i.e., the Seminary, got thirteen direct hits.
A fragment of shrapnel weighing four ounces went directly through
the window of the Archbishop' s living room, but did not hit him as he was
on the floor in the next room.
d. On or about the
first of March 1945, the Reverend Father
Ersando, Parish Priest of Tay Tay came to see the Archbishop.
The priest was in a very bedraggled condition and
told the Archbishop that Japanese
officers had taken possession of his church and residence and had given
him orders to stop all relief work
and to spend the day going through his parish to
find out who among the
parishioners were pro-American so that the
Japanese could assassinate them.
The priest said to the Archbishop, "I knew that all my people to
the last individual were pro-American.
I saw immediately that my life would be in
danger and so I shed my clerical
garb, passed the night in the house
of one of parishioners and escaped to Manila, because I
felt certain that if I went back
to my residence and did not report some of the parishioners they would
take my head off."
e. All threats against
the Archbishop were made behind his back, but not in writing.
The Japanese held a meeting in the Archbishop's house with
representatives of the Japanese High Command and the Colonel who was at
the head of the religious section of the Japanese army.
They stated that the object of this meeting was to clarify the
position of the Archbishop. They gave him (the Archbishop) their manifesto
to the Philippine people and through an interpreter, asked him if he
approved of it. The
Archbishop said, “No.”
Then the Japanese spoke excitedly and violently in Japanese for about five
minutes and came back again and asked the Archbishop if he would give
orders that this manifesto be read in the pulpit of the Catholic church in
the Philippine Islands. The
Archbishop answered, “No.”
The Japanese came back the
third time and asked if he would allow this manifesto to be given to the
Filipino Catholics and he replied, "This distribution was not to my
business and if you want to give it to the Filipino people I cannot stop
f. The Archbishop's secretary then received an order from the head
of the Religious section that the Archbishop should prepare to be
imprisoned in Fort Santiago, but somehow that never happened.
The Archbishop was imprisoned in protective custody in his own
house for one month.
g. Later, the Japanese asked
the Archbishop to broadcast from their station in company with General
Aquinaldo and the head bishop of the Aglipayan church.
The Archbishop refused and again an order came to him to prepare to
go to Fort Santiago. This was
not put into effect. The
Archbishop heard from many parish priests that Japanese officers "in their
cups" were boasting that they would have the Archbishop in Fort Santiago
the following week.
h. A Japanese officer told the Archbishop about Christmas time that
there was a definite move to apprehend him in the first week of December
1944. Finally, a few days
before the arrival of our American troops, a Japanese officer came to the
Archbishop with an order from the Commanding General for the Archbishop to
be ready to accompany them to Baguio at five that afternoon because "they
had orders from Tokyo to protect me.” The Archbishop tried to give his
excuses why he could not abandon his post and people, and finally when it
came to a show-down and the Japanese officer insisted upon the order he
had received from the commanding general whose name the officer refused to
give, the Archbishop gave his final reply, saying, "Tell the General if I
go to Baguio with you I will go as a prisoner, but not protected.”
It (See Exhibit ”B-36”.)
38. On or
about 2 January 1942, Mr. Roy C.Bennett, Editor and General Manager
of the Manila Daily Bulletin, was arrested by the Japanese and confined
for three hundred eighty-nine days in Fort Santiago from where he was
taken to Santo Tomas Internment Camp.
placed at Fort Santiago, was like a box stall for cattle, the dimensions
of which were 12x13. There
were no toilet facilities except a trap door in one corner of the cell.
Originally there were four Frenchmen, two Spaniards, and one other
person in the cell with Mr. Bennett.
However, at one time there were as many as twenty-two in the same
cell. Prisoners were punished
for any offense. Among those most tortured in the
Mr. Bennett testified that he has seen Filipinos in the cell in
such condition that they could not feed or dress themselves, or get a
drink of water. They had
black and blue marks all over their arms.
One Filipino's hands were tied together between and under his knees
and an iron pipe placed across his chest under his arms, and then one end
of it put up on a step ladder and the other end put in a hole.
He was kept there for three hours at a time three times a day for
more than three weeks, and tortured that way until he could not stand up
or use his hands they were so numb.
He came over and said to Mr. Bennett, "Pray for me every night.
You pray that I may be able to endure it; that my report and my
companion’s report may coincide.”
The companion was not in the same cell with him.
The educated Filipinos were beaten until they were black and blue.
They were knocked down for the simple offense of talking.
They were beaten over the head by guards until they vomited.
In one instance a sick prisoner spoke a new arrival in the cell
before the guard had gotten out of hearing distance.
The prisoner was then beaten with a stick and kicked for quite some
time. Filipinos were hand
cuffed for days at a time until their wrists were frequently covered with
sores. One Filipino was a
prisoner for two or three months with leg irons and at night quite
frequently his hands were tied behind him.
He was forced to lie down because it was against the rules to sit
up at night. Several of the
original groups were beaten because the Japanese guard found a plate which
he told them should be taken out.
He asked who had left the plate there.
Then they were lined up and made to slap each other.
It lasted for some time.
It was virtually impossible for a man to get to the doctor when he
was sick. A man was left
lying in the cell with an infected knee for five days during which time
every possible effort was made to reach the doctor.
When it first became infected, permission was asked to take him to
the doctor, and after several days he did get to a doctor.
He was ordered returned for daily treatment, but for a period of
five days the cruelty of the guards prohibited returning this man to the
doctor for treatment. When he
finally was returned to the doctor, his knee was lanced in five places,
and the following day he was taken to the Philippine General Hospital.
In the whole time that Mr. Bennett was imprisoned at Fort Santiago
once informed officially or otherwise what, if any, sentence had been
passed in his case, or informed what the charge
was against him. He
was refused even the opportunity to make inquiry or protest.
The prisoners had no beds or chairs on which to sit.
They were not allowed to stick pegs in the cracks of the wall on
which to hang their clothes.
They could not wash them in the sink under the floor of their cell.
They were almost never taken to shower outside for a long enough
period to wash their clothes.
They once went for fifteen days without being permitted to take a bath.
Sometimes the door of the cell was not opened for seven days
food was sent through a hole in the wall.
Mrs. Bennett brought her husband clean clothes, medicine and
vitamin tablets, but there were times when she went for weeks without
being able to get anything through to him.
She was not able to get anything to him in the way of food except
five hardboiled eggs and nineteen calamansis.
She once took him something that the guard held out to him and then
banged it on the floor, scornfully saying, "No."
It was a common occurrence to search the cell sometimes as often as
six or eight or ten times.
The search might result in anything being taken away, such as clothes.
Everything Mr. Bennett had in the cell was taken away except one
BVD (underwear). They never
had shoes in the cell. It was
desperately hot in the hot seasons and there was poor ventilation with no
screening. The mosquitoes
poured in through the floor when they opened the toilet.
They had mice, body lice, crabs, bedbugs and cock roaches.
The Japanese took their spectacles away so that Mr. Bennett could
not see to delouse his clothes.
The Filipinos could not delouse the prisoners.
If they did so the guards reported them, which meant the
possibility of their being beaten.
The cell in which Mr. Bennett was imprisoned for approximately one
year commanded a view of the court yard in which prisoners were allowed to
shower. From the cell, guards
could be seen beating prisoners - Filipinos, Japanese, Chinese, Americans
and Europeans – with a heavy stick.
He has seen them knocked down three times until at last they could
not get up. Then the guards
would kick them in the face.
In the next cell a Chinese woman was kept alone.
The guards would come into the cell and toss her around on the
floor. At one time an
American prisoner was placed in a small cell next to Mr. Bennett's.
This American reached the point of sickness where he was unable to
eat or sleep. Part of the
time he was rational, but part of the time he was delirious.
He could not eat the rice, they brought him, so they brought him
nothing but rice. For days he was much of the time unconscious.
Through Mr. Bennett's efforts this American was finally
hospitalized, but only after he had been extremely ill for a long period
of time. It was not uncommon
for prisoners to be left in cells for periods up to two weeks without
food. In a Small cell next to
Mr. Bennett’s there were, at one time, three Filipinos on a "no rice"
status; that is, no food whatsoever.
When the oldest of the three, an aged Filipino, claimed that he
would die, the guard said, “You die- I happy.”
The prisoners in Mr. Bennett’s cell from time to time were denied
food for periods up to two weeks as punishment.
If any of the prisoners gave them food they were severely beaten.
They were often tortured by being told that very soon-tomorrow or in a few
days - they could go home, only to find that after a few days, weeks or
months they remained in prison.
It was not uncommon for a guard to come to the door, look in,
pointing his finger and say, "You American?”
Upon receiving a reply in the affirmative, the guard would say,
"You American sonabitch." Mr.
Bennett’s states that the cruelty and the torture that he saw while at
that prison was, in a small way, exactly the same thing that happened
during the destruction of Manila.
Because of what he saw there, he stated he was not surprised at
what the Japanese have done to Manila. (See Exhibit "B-37".)
Father Francis J. Cosgarve, Catholic Priest, Redemptorist Monastery,
Baclaran, Greater Manila, P. I., testified that, "The atrocities which he
could give first hand evidence on are in connection with the massacre in
De LaSalle College, Manila, although he had heard of many others which he
had not actually seen himself.”
Father Cosgrave went to live in De LaSalle College when the
Japanese occupied his house and church in Baclaran, and at the invitation
of the director, Brother Xavier.
About Christmas there were four Spanish families by the names of
Vasquez Prada, Judge Carlos, Dr. Cojuanco, and the family of Dr.
Cojuanco's brother-in-law, living at De LaSalle College.
In all, including servants, there were about seventy people living
in the southern wing of the college.
This number was composed of approximately thirty women and
children, seventeen brothers, the grown men of the above four families,
servants. On Wednesday,
February 7th, 1945, a Japanese officer
Japanese soldiers came to the college.
They lined the people in the corridors of the second floor of the
main building and searched them.
They then took away Brother Xavier, the director, and Judge Carlos.
men had their hands bound behind their backs.
They were taken to another building.
Later, this building was burned to the ground by the Japanese.
The keys and the whistle that Brother Xavier used were found on the
site of this building. The
Japanese forbade the people to leave the college or even venture into the
grounds of the college. Only
the women were allowed to go out to draw water.
On Monday, February 12th, just after noon, all were gathered at the
foot of the staircase in the southern wing because shelling was going on
at the time. A Japanese
officer, accompanied by an estimated twenty Japanese soldiers, took away
two of the muchachos (boy servants).
A few minutes later the two boys were brought back badly wounded.
Then the officer gave a command and at once the soldiers began
bayoneting all the women and children.
Those who resisted were shot and the officer cut some with his
sword. Among the brothers who
were bayoneted, most of them were German.
One was Hungarian, one a Czeck, and one an Irishman.
One of the brothers said the word “Deutscher,” but he was bayoneted
the same as were the rest.
Some of the brothers managed to escape up the stairs, but were overtaken
at the top of the stairs and there wounded; others reached the chapel and
were there struck down. Some
of the children of only two or three years of age were bayoneted. When the
finished bayoneting, they threw all of them into a heap outside the
ground, some of those already dead being thrown on top of the living and
left there. The personal effects of the dead and wounded were then looted
or stolen. Father Cosgrave
was of the opinion that those doing the looting were Filipino; helost all
of his personal belongings. frequently during the afternoon, the soldiers
came in to watch them and mock at their sufferings.
They remained there all afternoon during which time many of those
who were wounded died. About ten o'clock that evening, Father Cosgrave was
able to raise himself to administer the last consolations of religion to
some who were dying. He then
crawled up the stairs and found many people dead or dying at the top of
the stairs. One boy who had
been an invalid for two or three months was lying dead outside the door of
his room. This was the son of Doctor Cojuanco.
The survivors remained there until Thursday afternoon, February
15th, about four o’clock, when the Americans entered the building.
Father Cosgrave received two thrusts on the chest from the bayonet.
(See Exhibit "B-38” - Cosgrave.)
Mrs. Magdelena Blaza, age 23, housewife, was fired upon by Japanese as
she entered her home. She
hid, but they came into the house and went upstairs. In the house were her
husband and two children. Her
husband was a police officer, but he was not in uniform or armed at the
time. She was hiding
because the Japanese were shooting people and she was afraid that they
would find out her husband was a police officer.
Her husband was killed and she was wounded. (See Exhibit "B-41".)
Mrs. Sarah V. Gadol, age 39, Ermita, Manila, saw a Japanese shoot the
owner of Taja de Oro on Esaac Peral.
After a night of firing the Japanese took her and the others to the
Bayview Hotel. They forced
her to let her daughter go with them (the Japanese) at the point of a
bayonet. The Japanese stole
about 3,000 pesos Philippine currency from her, and also clothes and three
bags containing merchandise worth 40,000 pesos.
Her husband is Robert S. Gadol, age 50, a jeweler and seller of
merchandise. (See Exhibit “B-42.”)
Mrs. Gregoria Alinabon, age 37, Manila, was one of a large group of
people who were ordered to get in line by the Japanese.
There were about 1,000 men, women and children who were told to sit
down. They were then machine
gunned. Two of Mrs.
Alinabon’s children died and one was wounded.
She was not hurt. (See
Marino Alata Pinagcaesar watched five Japanese bring gasoline and pour
it on her house (Nipa hut) and then set fire to it.
Six in her family - her uncle, one old man, one child, two others
and herself, jumped out of the windows, ran away, and hid under a banana
tree. The Japanese saw them
and shot at them. Her uncle
was shot and died the next day.
(See Exhibit “B-46”.)
44. On 5
February 1945, a Japanese company of about fifty men with six machine guns
and hand grenades, and three officers (one captain and two lieutenants)
came to the vicinity of the house of Mr. Ceriaco Ruiz, Manila.
Mr. Ruiz and his cousin, Ramona Camaulin, were taken by the
Japanese to St. Paul College where there were about six hundred persons
gathered. Around three
o’clock in the afternoon one Japanese captain and two sentries came in,
bringing four hundred pieces of biscuit in two boxes, and one bottle of
beer. The captain stood in
the corner and shouted, “Here are candies and this beer is sweet and nice
to drink.” He was the first
to drink the beer and h mad a toast to the people.
Then he threw the biscuits to the people.
Then the captain went out, and the Japanese began shelling and
throwing grenades at the people gathered in the college.
About five hundred were killed, many being machine gunned as they
tried to run away. (See
Mrs. Florencia Lao was washing clothes one morning, a Japanese
officer called her husband.
When her husband reached the street the Japanese machine gunned him and he
dropped dead. Then the
Japanese pointed a machine gun at Mrs. Lao, but she escaped as she ran.
Looking back, she saw her house burning with her three children
inside of it. The ages of her
children who died are, Sarah 7; Aurea 2; and Nito 8 months.
Her ten year old daughter, Luz, survived.
(See Exhibit “B-48”.)
46. On 17
February 1945, there were about seven hundred people, among whom was
Mr. Sy Suan, a Chinese, brought to the area in front of a church.
About nineteen Japanese, twelve of whom were of officers, tied the
Filipino's hands behind their backs.
At 5:00 PM they were brought to Singalong and were taken one by one
upstairs where they were blindfolded and their heads cut off with the
sword. The bodies were then
pushed out of the windows to the ground floor.
About three or four hundred were ahead of Mr. Suan.
When he fell below, where many bodies were piled, he remained
conscious, so the Japanese fired two shots at him; but did not hit him so
he survived. (See Exhibit
Brother Anthony, De LaSalle College, Manila, was a witness to the
massacre at De LaSalle College about fifty Japanese soldiers surrounded
the house, some of whom entered and lined up all the brothers and
civilians to make an inspection for arms and weapons.
They took Brother Xavier aside and into the next room, along with
Judge Carlos, a civilian. The
brothers and civilians were warned not to leave the house or to be seen
from the road. On February 12
about twelve o'clock, a Japanese captain entered the house to look for a
second entrance, into the house and examine the hallways for snipers. He
found no snipers in the house, but insisted that there had been shooting
from the second and third floors, so he took three of the civilians as
hostages. He then ordered the
shooting and bayoneting of everyone in the house.
Brother Anthony was on the second floor, but could hear the
shooting and bayoneting thrusts below.
Two Japanese bayoneted Brother Anthony but his wounds were not
deep, so he survived.
Filomeno Inulin, Manila, was another of the fifteen survivors of the
approximately seventy massacred.
(See Exhibits “B-51” and “B-55”.)
Alipio Augustin, Makati, Manila, was one of four Filipinos whom the
Japanese, on 11 February, took to Fort McKinley.
The Japanese commander ordered a private and an officer to tie his
hands behind hi. He was then
taken to McKinley where the officer told him to kneel down.
Mr. Augustin was then stabbed in the neck with a sword, but the
wound was not fatal. His only
son was killed, and on 8 February, about
2:00PM, he witnessed the stabbing of his wife and children with a bayonet
by the Japanese. The Augustin home at 298 Commercio, Makati, Manila, was
also burned on this date by the Japanese. (Exhibits “B-52”, "B-53", and
49. On 4
February 1945, Wang Chi Chang, Manila, was one of a group of about
fifty people at the Tee Cho Lumber Company who hid in an air raid shelter.
About twelve noon fifteen Jap soldiers came and told them to get out of
the shelter, and then tied their hands behind their backs.
They were brought to the cigarette factory and told they would all
be killed. All were
bayoneted, including Mr. Chang who was bayoneted a second time when the
Japanese observed that he was not dead.
He was one of six survivors of the original fifty massacred.
(See Exhibit “B-56".)
Mrs. Esther Garcia Moras, Ermita, Manila, testified in part as
follows: On 9 February 1945,
at 7:00 PM, fires were started in the Ermita section near our home.
We went out of our houses.
The Japanese separated the men from the women and children.
I estimate that there were about 6,000 women and children in Plaza
Ferguson near the Bayview Hotel.
They separated the Filipinas from the Mestizas and the young girls
from the older women and took the Mestizas in to the hotel.
About twenty-five girls ranging in age from thirteen to
twenty-seven years were placed in one room and given food, whiskey and
cigarettes. They were allowed
to eat and drink in the room, and for about twenty minutes there was
nobody else present.
Afterwards a group of three or four soldiers came into the room, and each
the room, including one of my two sisters, age 14, who was returned to the
room by the soldiers when they found she was having a menstrual period.
Afterwards they took my other sister who later came back and said
the Japanese had attacked her by having her takeoff all her clothes and
making her lie on the floor and then raping her.
One of the girls tried to resist but she was slapped. Each soldier
did it only once, but there were an average of four different soldiers per
girl. My sister did her best
to resist, but she and others could do nothing.
She told all to everyone in the room.
The Japanese soldiers would come in with candies and choose the
girl they wanted. There were
similar groups of girls in other rooms. I estimated at least five or six,
making a total of about one hundred girls.
Nothing was done to Luey Tani, age 24, as the soldiers found that
she had a defect on her - that she was so small that they could not do
anything to her. Gloria Gelzi
was another girl, age 15, but the names of others are not known. After
taking my sister, one Japanese returned and took me.
He took me to a room and locked the door.
He tore my dress and my pants.
he threw me on the floor and did it.
It hurt me. I screamed
and shouted and tried to push him off, but in vain.
He was about five feet, six inches tall.
About twelve or fifteen different ones took me.
The last one was so large that he hurt me.
I actually bled. He
took all of my clothes and put me on a bed.
He kept me there about a half hour, raping me several times.
One girl was pregnant about eight months or more and they started
to take her out. They did
nothing to her because she kicked them.
We stayed in the Bayview Hotel three days without food or water,
but they only raped us that one night.
When the building was on fire they told us to go away.
We could not go home because our house was burned.
We kept running about in Arquisa Street.
No medical attention was given any of the girls.
My sister was very badly hurt because she started to bleed as it
was the first time anyone did that to her.
They did it to her four times. We tried to take her to a doctor,
but we couldn't. However, I
saw a Filipino doctor about four days ago. He examined me and told me that
I had a venereal disease. My
sister also has a venereal disease from the raping.
I would like to have my name and address and that I testified not
told to anyone. The name of
Mrs. Mora’s sister who was also raped is Priscilla Garcia and the sister
who was not raped because she was having a menstrual period was Evangeline
Garcia. (See Exhibits
“B-57f”, “B-58", and “B-59”.)