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[i] For this and following information on Manila, see Robert R. Smith, Triumph in the Philippines, The War in the Pacific, United States Army in World War II (Washington, DC:  Center of Military History, United States Army, 1993 [1963]), 237-40; and Stanley A. Frankel, The 37th Infantry Division in World War II  (Washington, DC:  Infantry Journal Press, 1948), 243-47. 

[ii] Smith, 241, 242, Appendix D, Appendix E`

[iii] Smith, 242-44.

[iv]Reports of General MacArthur, 2v., Gordon W. Prange ed. (Washington, DC: Center of Military History, United States Army, 1944 [1966]), Volume II, Part II, [hereafter MacArthur Reports II], 498;  Smith, 271-73;  Richard Connaughton, John Pimlott and Duncan Anderson, The Battle for Manila (Novato, CA: Presidio Press, 1995), 142. 

[v] Connaughton, 141-42.

[vi] Ibid., 143, 187;  U.S. Army,  37th Infantry Division, Report After Action on Operations of the 37th Infantry Division, M-1 Operations (Headquarters, 37th Infantry Division, 1945) [hereafter 37th Infantry Division], 47.  For organization of Japanese forces in Manila area see Smith, Appendix D. 

[vii] Smith, 308; Connaughton, 189-91; 37th Infantry Division, 51. 

[viii] Smith, 244-45.

[ix] Ibid., 241-42; Connaughton, 186-87.

[x] Connaughton, 83, 180, 181.

[xi] Smith, 249; Connaughton, 83, 179-81; Reports of General MacArthur, 2v.,  Gordon W. Prange ed. (Washington, DC:  Center of Military History, United States Army, 1994 [1966]), Volume I [hereafter MacArthur Reports I], 276. 

[xii] Smith, 249-50.  For U.S. urban-warfare doctrine of the day, see U.S. War Department, FM 31--50, Attack on a Fortified Position and Combat in Towns (Washington, DC: 31 January 1944).

[xiii] Connaughton, 83-84; Smith 217-18; Frankel, 242; Bertram C. Wright, The 1st Cavalry Division in World War II (Tokyo: Toppan Printing Company, 1947), 128, 129. 

[xiv] Wright, 129. 

[xv] Smith, 251, 252; Wright, 132, 133; Frankel, 255.

[xvi] Smith, 250-51, 256; Wright, 133.

[xvii] Smith, 253-54; 37th Infantry Division, 41, 43; Frankel, 254, 259.

[xviii] Smith, 253.

[xix] Frankel, 252, 254-57; Smith, 255; 37th Infantry Division, 41. 

[xx] 37th Infantry Division, 43; Smith 254. 

[xxi] Connaughton, 109; 37th Infantry Division, 45; Smith, 259-60; Frankel, 272. 

[xxii] 37th Infantry Division, 47. 

[xxiii] .  Smith, 260-63; 37th Infantry Division, 49, 51; Frankel, 275-76.

[xxiv] 37th Infantry Division, 49. 

[xxv] Ibid., 51.

[xxvi] Ibid. 

[xxvii] Frankel, 273-75; 37th Infantry Division, 49. 

[xxviii] Frankel, 273, 275; 37th Infantry Division, 49, 52.

[xxix] Above account of New Police Station strongpoint drawn from Frankel, 276-80; Smith, 280-83

[xxx] Above account of City Hall and General Post Office strongpoints drawn from Smith, 284-85, Frankel, 280. 

[xxxi] Smith, 285-87.

[xxxii] Smith, 287-90.

[xxxiii] Wright, 134, 136; Smith, 264-65, 269; Connaughton, 84-85.

[xxxiv] Smith, 277-78.

[xxxv] Smith, 279-80, Connaughton, 180.

[xxxvi] The 129th Infantry in World War II, Regimental Staff ed. (Washington, DC: Infantry Journal Press, 1947) [hereafter 129th Infantry], 107; Smith, 294, 296; 37th Infantry Division, 77, 79.

[xxxvii] Smith, 297-300; 37th Infantry Division, 79, 81; Frankel, 291.

[xxxviii] 129th Infantry, 108; Smith, 298; 37th Infantry Division, 83.

[xxxix] 37th Infantry Division, 81; Connaughton, 170-71; Frankel, 292, 293. 

[xl] Smith, 303; Connaughton, 188; Frankel, 293-94; 37th Infantry Division, 86.

[xli] Smith, 303-06; Frankel, 294, 295; 37th Infantry Division, 86. 

[xlii] Smith, 306

[xliii] Smith, 307; Frankel, 295-96; Krueger, General Walter, From Down Under to Nippon, The Story of Sixth Army in World War II (Washington, DC: Combat Forces Press, 1953), 251; Wright, 136; 129th Infantry, 97.

[xliv] Frankel, 297-98; 37th Infantry Division, 88; 129th Infantry, 109. 

[xlv] Frankel, 299.

[xlvi] .  Ibid., 299-303; 129th Infantry, 110.

[xlvii] 37th Infantry, 43; Smith, 308; Connaughton, 190-91.

[xlviii] On coordinating advance and consolidation of lines, see Frankel, 276.  On tanks, see 37th Infantry Division, 59.  On airpower, see Smith 235, 249-50, 264, 294.

[xlix] Smith, 249-50, 263-64, 296; 37th Infantry Division, 51. 

[l] 37th Infantry Division, 53, 55, 75, 77, 81.

[li] Frankel, 261; 129th Infantry, 109.  

[lii] 37th Infantry Division, 59

[liii] 37th Infantry Division, 65, 67.

[liv] Connaughton, 123; 37th Infantry Division, 53; Frankel, 278.

[lv] Frankel, 277.  For atrocities, see e.g. Connaughton, 113-25. 


      B     I     B     L     I     O     G     R     A     P     H     Y    


The 129th Infantry in World War II.  Regimental Staff ed.  Washington, DC:  Infantry Journal Press,  1947.

History of the 129th Infantry Regiment in the Pacific in World War II, prepared by the regimental staff.  Describes operational events as seen at the regimental level.  Useful appendices. 

Connaughton, Richard, John Pimlott and Duncan Anderson.  The Battle for Manila. Novato, CA:  Presidio Press, 1995. 

Excellent single volume treatment of the Manila battle.  Synthesizes earlier literature and provides interesting insights of its own. 

Frankel, Stanley A.  The 37th Infantry Division in World War II.  Washington, DC:  Infantry Journal Press, 1948. 

A history of the 37th Infantry Divisionís service in the Pacific written apparently on behalf of the 37th Divisionís Veterans Association.  Describes operational events and is especially good for details relating to divisional morale and unusual challenges faced by the division.  Useful appendices. 

Krueger, GEN Walter.  From Down Under to Nippon, The Story of Sixth Army in World War II.  Washington, DC:  Combat Forces Press, 1953. 

Memoir of the commander of  6th Army in the Pacific.  Describes succinctly the Pacific operations of 6th Army. 

Reports of General MacArthur, 2v.  Gordon W. Prange ed.  Washington, DC: Center of Military History, United States Army, 1994 [1966]. 

Authoritative account of the Pacific War compiled by MacArthurís staff in Japan shortly after World War II.  Volume I addresses U.S. operations in the Pacific, and Volume II addresses Japanese operations in the Pacific. 

Smith, Robert R.  Triumph in the Philippines, The War in the Pacific, United States Army in World War II.  Washington, DC:  Center of Military History, United  States Army,  1993 [1963]. 

Official U.S. Army history of the Philippine campaign of 1944-1945.  Contains detailed coverage of combat events, maps, casualty figures, and the like, for U.S. ground forces. 

U.S. Army.  37th Infantry Division.  Report after Action on Operations of the 37th  Infantry Division, M-1 Operations.  Headquarters, 37th Infantry Division, 1945. 

The day by day after action report of the 37th Infantry Division.  Describes daily deployments and results for the division.  Thoughtful commentary is provided at many points by division staff officers. 

U.S. War Department.  FM 31ó50.  Attack on a Fortified Position and Combat in Towns.  Washington, DC, 31 January 1944. 

Field manual describing doctrine of the U.S. Army for urban warfare during World War II. 

Wright, Bertram C.  The 1st Cavalry Division in World War II.  Tokyo:  Toppan  Printing Company,  1947. 

History of the Pacific campaigns of the 1st Cavalry Division compiled by the division historian.  Colloquial in tone.  Contains numerous photos and useful appendices.